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Brain Structure

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What is Tokenization? - Definition from Techopedia. Gene sind kein Schicksal, Blech.

Critical subject, because of the many views and opinions about the interplay of complex gene-enviroment interactions. He is a propagonist of self determination and the nurture fraction. The book is already a few years old, but quite good for sensibilizing for the subject, is written good understandable and is a perfect literature for the open air swimming pool. – weihler

From Simple Receptors to Complex Multimodal Percepts: A First Global Picture on the Mechanisms Involved in Perceptual Binding.

Discourse about binding theories. – weihler

Using existing knowledge – psystrat. Exercise May Help Preserve Memory and Thinking Skills. Stuart Bradford Remaining physically active as you age, a new study shows, may help protect parts of your brain from shrinking, a process that has been linked to declines in thinking and memory skills.

Physical exercise not only protected against such age-related brain changes, but also had more of an effect than mentally and socially stimulating activities. University of Edinburgh followed more than 600 people, starting at age 70. The subjects provided details on their daily physical, mental and social activities. Three years later, using imaging scans, the scientists found that the subjects who engaged in the most physical exercise, including walking several times a week, had less shrinkage and damage in the brain’s white matter, which is considered the “wiring” of the brain’s communication system. – weihler

Physical exercise not only protected against such age-related brain changes, but also had more of an effect than mentally and socially stimulating activities.

Exercise May Help Preserve Memory and Thinking Skills

In the new report, published in the journal Neurology, a team at the University of Edinburgh followed more than 600 people, starting at age 70. Gestalt psychology. Pin by Ulrich Weihler on Quotes. The roles of protein kinases in learning and memory. Didavision - Das menschliche Ohr. Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings, - Wellness and Complementary Medicine. Your Brain on Food is a book about the brain, drugs, and foods.

So many sites for book resumes. I liked this one, because it is written like an adventure novel. What did they do in old china to control their moods? How did the wikings win their wars? Who brought unknown substances to the western world? Which drugs did the churches promote? What happened when they were not accepted? What role did drugs play in WWII? How did modern scientists start to isolate single ingredients to reduce side effects? What role do they play for learning and aging. A wonderful way to get an understanding for the history of pharmacology. – weihler

The author, Gary L.

Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings, - Wellness and Complementary Medicine

Wenk, is a Professor, at the Ohio State University and Medical Center. New Technique Could Enable Personalized Medicine.

New technique of "photolithography" might enable inexpensive possibility to repair damaged individual brain structures and develop individual medicine resp. check effects of different medications. Mixture of brain cells taken from the primary cortex embeded into sheets of hydrogel. Components of extracellular matrix included, for structural support and cell behavior regulation. Sheets then stacked in layers, which can be sealed together using light to crosslink hydrogels. By covering layers of gels with plastic photomasks of varying shapes, the researchers could control how much of the gel was exposed to light, thus controlling the 3-D shape of the multilayer tissue construct. – weihler

Psychostress beim Job: Greift der Arzt zu rasch zum Stift? - Schweiz.

Obviously this HR Healthcare Interface is making sense and is enrichable with Aritificial Intelligence tools, to be developed. – weihler

Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

Good for getting a general understanding of neurotraumata, also in general, and the state of the art, from a multidimensional scientific and clinical perspective. Resmume: Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury, Edited by Vicki Anderson and Keith Owen Yeates – weihler

Das Gehirn: Von der Nervenzelle zur Verhaltenssteuerung: Richard Thompson, Andreas Held: Bücher. Excitotoxicity. ROS and apoptosis. Role in cancer therapy. Science of Stoke, Mechanisms in Search of Treatments. Mapping brain circuits for specific functions. MIT neuroscientists used calcium imaging to label these pyramidal cells in the brain (credit: Qian Chen/MIT) A team led by MIT neuroscientists has developed a way to monitor how brain cells coordinate with each other to control specific behaviors, such as initiating movement or detecting an odor.

Visualization. MIT-led team created a calcium-imaging system that can be targeted to specific cell types, using a type of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The MIT researchers genetically engineered mice to express this protein in a type of neuron known as pyramidal cells, by pairing the gene with a regulatory DNA sequence that is only active in those specific types of cells. Using two-photon microscopy to image the cells at high speed and high resolution, the researchers can identify pyramidal cells that are active when the brain is performing a specific task or responding to a certain stimulus. The researchers are now developing mice that express the calcium-sensitive proteins and also exhibit symptoms of autistic behavior and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Using these mice, the researchers plan to look for neuron firing patterns that differ from normal mice. This could help identify exactly what goes wrong at the cellular level, offering mechanistic insights into those diseases. – weihler

The researchers’ new imaging technique, based on the detection of calcium ions in neurons, could help them map the brain circuits that perform such functions.

Mapping brain circuits for specific functions

It could also provide new insights into the origins of psychiatric diseases, says Guoping Feng, senior author of a paper appearing in the Oct. 18 issue of the journal Neuron. “To understand psychiatric disorders we need to study animal models, and to find out what’s happening in the brain when the animal is behaving abnormally,” says Feng, the James W. and Patricia Poitras Professor of Neuroscience and a member of the McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT. Lead author of the Neuron paper is McGovern Institute postdoc Qian Chen. Blue Brain Project Accurately Predicts Connections between Neurons. 26.09.12 - Proof of concept: researchers identify principles to support brain simulation models One of the greatest challenges in neuroscience is to identify the map of synaptic connections between neurons.

A longstanding neuroscientific mystery has been whether all the neurons grow independently and just take what they get as their branches bump into each other, or are the branches of each neuron specifically guided by chemical signals to find all its target. To solve the mystery, researchers looked in a virtual reconstruction of a cortical microcircuit to see where the branches bumped into each other. To their great surprise, they found that the locations on the model matched that of synapses found in the equivalent real-brain circuit with an accuracy ranging from 75 percent to 95 percent. This means that neurons grow as independently of each other as physically possible and mostly form synapses at the locations where they randomly bump into each other. – weihler

Called the “connectome,” it is the holy grail that will explain how information flows in the brain.

Blue Brain Project Accurately Predicts Connections between Neurons

In a paper, published the week of 17th of September in PNAS, the EPFL’s Blue Brain Project (BBP) has identified key principles that determine synapse-scale connectivity by virtually reconstructing a cortical microcircuit and comparing it to a mammalian sample. These principles now make it possible to predict the locations of synapses in the neocortex. First micro-structure atlas of the human brain completed. A European team of scientists have built the first atlas of white-matter microstructure in the human brain.

Based on white-matter microstructure in the human brain. The atlas describes the brain's microstructure in standardized space, which enables non-expert users, such as physicians or medical researchers, to exploit the wealth of knowledge it "The UCL team use the latest computer modelling algorithms and hardware to invent new imaging techniques. The techniques we devised were key to realising the new CONNECT brain atlas."The imaging techniques reveal new information about brain structure that help us understand how low-level cellular architecture relate to high-level thought processes." The key novelty in the atlas is the mapping of microscopic features (such as average cell size and packing density) within the white matter, which contains the neuronal fibers that transmit information around the living brain. The results of the project, obtained through advanced image processing techniques, provide new depth and accuracy in our understanding of the human brain in health and disease. – weihler

The project’s final results have the potential to change the face of neuroscience and medicine over the coming decade.

First micro-structure atlas of the human brain completed

The work relied on groundbreaking MRI technology and was funded by the EU’s future and emerging technologies program with a grant of 2.4 million Euros. The participants of the project, called CONNECT, were drawn from leading research centres in countries across Europe including Israel, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland and Italy.

The project investigators met today in Paris, after 3 years of research, to announce the conclusion of the project and present a report of their findings. The Brain CONNECT Project. Synchrone Oszillationen, zeitliche Codierung.

Elektrische Impulse, synchrone Oszillationen mehrerer Gehirnbereiche. Da gleichzeitige Verarbeitung zu komplex, nicht möglich, schon gar nicht zentral, wahrscheinlich Aufnahme von Mustern und Verarbeitung in der Zeit (s. Eagleman Zeit-, Objektbindung). – weihler
Schon seit den ersten Elektroenzephalogrammen (EEG) wissen Mediziner, dass die elektrischen Impulse im Gehirn ständig in rhythmischen Mustern auftreten, die sich etwa im Schlaf- und Wachzustand, aber auch bei bestimmten Wahrnehmungsprozessen im Gehirn deutlich unterscheiden. Ein EEG macht dies in einer regelmäßigen Abfolge von Zickzacklinien deutlich. Wenn Forscher Prozesse untersuchen, an denen mehrere Hirnareale beteiligt sind, dann finden sie oft synchrone Oszillationen, also gleichgeschaltete Aktivitäten ganzer Neuronenverbände, die in identischen Frequenzen feuern. Inzwischen vermuten viele Wissenschaftler, dass solche wiederkehrenden elektrischen Muster sehr wichtig sind für komplexe kognitive Leistungen. Bindungsproblem: Sinneseindrücke werden im Gehirn zerstückelt. Ein Areal signalisiert „etwas Rotes“, ein anderes „etwas Rundes“ und ein drittes „Bewegung von rechts nach links“. Bewusst werden dem Menschen diese Teileindrücke aber nicht, er nimmt lediglich die Gesamtheit wahr. – weihler
Als Lösung für das Bindungsproblem wurde zunächst diskutiert, ob es vielleicht im Gehirn einen Bereich gibt, der ausschließlich für die bewusste Wahrnehmung zuständig ist. Trotz intensiver Suche konnte aber ein solcher Hirnbereich, der sozusagen das Bewusstsein repräsentieren würde, bisher nicht gefunden werden. Zudem hat die Theorie noch einen weiteren Haken. „Wenn es für jede denkbare Situation eine eigene Zelle gäbe, dann entstünde eine kombinatorische Explosion“, sagt Wolf Singer. Es gibt zwar eine sehr große Zahl an Nervenzellen. Dem steht aber eine sehr große Zahl an möglichen Sinneseindrücken gegenüber, und für jede Kombination aus diesen Eindrücken müsste es mindestens eine Zelle geben. Das ist selbst mit Milliarden von Hirnzellen nicht machbar. Zeit als Kodierungsraum: Wie aber könnte das Bindungsproblem gelöst werden? Ein für die Situation spezifisches Muster an Hirnarealen ist aktiv und steht in einem zeitlichen Zusammenhang. – weihler
Das System weicht also in die Zeit aus als Kodierungsraum. Unsere bewusste Wahrnehmung entsteht also möglicherweise nicht in einem bestimmten Hirnbereich, sondern sie ist mit Hilfe von Oszillationen zeitlich kodiert. Vielleicht gilt das auch für alle anderen bewussten Denkprozesse. – weihler

Brain Wiring, MRI, Water. London’s streets are a mess.

For years, scientists have been able to trace the outlines of individual neurons by injecting them with telltale chemicals that migrate along their lengths. But this technique can only be used in dead brains, and it’s small in scale. To get the big picture, Wedeen turned to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a technique that uses magnetic fields to detect the water flowing along our neurons. By tracking these streams, Wedeen mapped the brain’s white matter fibres – the tracts that carry signals from one area to another. They are the original information superhighways, and Wedeen could see huge groups of them at once. – weihler
Brain Wiring, MRI, Water

Glutamate and GABA Balance. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter.

Glutamate and GABA Balance

While I am thinking, talking, processing and sharing with you, the glutamate receptors in my neurons are functioning actively to take glutamate into the cell. You need glutamate for learning, attending, and functioning. In fact, the more intelligent you are, the more glutamate receptors you have on your cells. But too much glutamate being taken in to your nerve cells will burn them out. It would be like turning a light switch on and off continuously until it breaks. A number of other substances related to glutamate will also act as excitatory neurotransmitters at glutamate receptor sites.

Astrocytes Target for New Depression Therapy. Tufts neuroscientists find that starry brain cells can be used to mimic sleep deprivation.

Sleep deprivation (particularly deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep), has been shown to be effective immediately in approximately 60% of patients with major depressive disorders. Although widely-recognized as helpful, it is not always ideal because it can be uncomfortable for patients, and the effects are not long-lasting. – weihler
Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation. This regulation of neuronal activity affects the sleep-wake cycle. Specifically, astrocytes act on adenosine receptors. During waking hours, adenosine accumulates and increases the urge to sleep. "In this study, we administered an adenosine receptor agonist to mice over the course of a night that caused the equivalent of sleep deprivation. The mice slept as normal, but the sleep did not reduce adenosine levels sufficiently, mimicking the effects of sleep deprivation. After only 12 hours, that mice had decreased depressive-like symptoms and increased levels of adenosine in the brain, and these results were sustained for 48 hours". “By manipulating astrocytes we were able to mimic the effects of sleep deprivation on depressive-like symptoms, causing a rapid and sustained improvement in behavior”. Further understanding of astrocytic signaling and the role of adenosine is important for research and development of anti-depressant drugs. – weihler

Neuroscience researchers from Tufts University have found that our star-shaped brain cells, called astrocytes, may be responsible for the rapid improvement in mood in depressed patients after acute sleep deprivation.

Astrocytes Target for New Depression Therapy

This in vivo study, published in the current issue of Translational Psychiatry, identified how astrocytes regulate a neurotransmitter involved in sleep. The researchers report that the findings may help lead to the development of effective and fast-acting drugs to treat depression, particularly in psychiatric emergencies. Myelin Covers and Distance of nodes cruical for Signal Speed.

Nerve Signals are travelling in different speeds within the body, which is dependent of the Myelin Coverage of the fibres (axons) and the distance of Nodes. The better the coverage and farther away the nodes, the faster the speed. – weihler

Intellectual Disability-Protein Regulation.

While many intellectual disabilities are caused directly by a genetic mutation in the so-called "protein coding" part of our genes, the researchers found that in their case the answer laid outside the gene and in the regulation of proteins. Protein regulation involves the switching on or off of a protein by specific genes. As a consequence in this case, either too much or too little of this protein can trigger the disability. Genetic samples taken from the family and laboratory testing involving mice have confirmed that the protein produced by the HCFC1 (host cell factor C1) gene is the cause of this disability. The vast majority of intellectual disabilities are due to genetic mutations in proteins, so it was rather unexpected that we found this particular disability to be due to a regulatory mutation. – weihler

Identification of psychiatric needs – psystrat. Resume first half: Neurodevelopmental Disorders Intellectual Disability: Severity is determined by adaptive functioning rather than IQ score.

Identification of psychiatric needs – psystrat

Deficits in cognitive capacity beginning in the developmental period. Communication Disorders: Expressive language disorders, speech sound disorder, fluency disorder, social communication disorder (not in the presence of restricted repetitive behaviors).