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Brain Structure

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Didavision - Das menschliche Ohr. From Simple Receptors to Complex Multimodal Percepts: A First Global Picture on the Mechanisms Involved in Perceptual Binding. Neuroadaptive Systems: Theory and Applications. Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience. S.

Biological Psychology: An Introduction to Behavioral, Cognitive, and Clinical Neuroscience

Marc Breedlove, the Barnett Rosenberg Professor of Neuroscience at Michigan State University, has written over 130 scientific articles investigating the role of hormones in shaping the developing and adult nervous system, publishing in journals including Science, Nature, Nature Neuroscience, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. W. W. Norton - Psychological Science, Fifth Edition. Principles of Cognitive Neuroscience, Second Edition. The roles of protein kinases in learning and memory. Psychostress beim Job: Greift der Arzt zu rasch zum Stift? - Schweiz. Gestalt psychology.

Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (German: Gestalt – "shape or form") is a theory of mind of the Berlin School.

Gestalt psychology

The central principle of gestalt psychology is that the mind forms a global whole with self-organizing tendencies. This principle maintains that the human mind considers objects in their entirety before, or in parallel with, perception of their individual parts; suggesting the whole is other than the sum of its parts. Gestalt psychology tries to understand the laws of our ability to acquire and maintain meaningful perceptions in an apparently chaotic world. In the domain of perception, Gestalt psychologists stipulate that perceptions are the products of complex interactions among various stimuli.

Contrary to the behaviorist approach to understanding the elements of cognitive processes, gestalt psychologists sought to understand their organization (Carlson and Heth, 2010). Pin by Ulrich Weihler on Quotes. Neuroscience, Fifth Edition. This site is a companion to the textbook Neuroscience , Fifth Edition Edited by Dale Purves, George J.

Neuroscience, Fifth Edition

Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, William C. Hall, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, and Leonard E. White, published by Sinauer Associates. Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings, - Wellness and Complementary Medicine. Your Brain on Food is a book about the brain, drugs, and foods.

So many sites for book resumes. I liked this one, because it is written like an adventure novel. What did they do in old china to control their moods? How did the wikings win their wars? Who brought unknown substances to the western world? Which drugs did the churches promote? What happened when they were not accepted? What role did drugs play in WWII? How did modern scientists start to isolate single ingredients to reduce side effects? What role do they play for learning and aging. A wonderful way to get an understanding for the history of pharmacology. – weihler

The author, Gary L.

Your Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings, - Wellness and Complementary Medicine

Wenk, is a Professor, at the Ohio State University and Medical Center. Das Gehirn: Von der Nervenzelle zur Verhaltenssteuerung: Richard Thompson, Andreas Held: Bücher. Gene sind kein Schicksal, Blech. Ebert, Psychiatrie systematisch. Geddes, Psychiatry. Gesundheitssurvey des Robert-Koch-Instituts: 2012. Epidemiologie psychischer Störungen in Deutschland. Stephan Martin in Jörg Blech, Gene sind kein Schicksal, ... Systeme. Neuroanatomie: Struktur und Funktion - Martin Trepel. Nolte, Study guide, Brain. Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury. Cortex insulaire. Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre.

Le cortex insulaire joue un rôle dans diverses fonctions, principalement liées aux émotions ou à la régulation de l'homéostasie du corps. Ces fonctions incluent la perception, le contrôle moteur, la conscience du soi, le fonctionnement cognitif et les expériences interpersonnelles. Impliquée dans certains dysfonctionnements psychopathologiques. Connexions: Thalamus, Amygdalae, Cortex Somatosensoriel II. – weihler

Le cortex insulaire gauche humain, exposé par la dissection des parties operculaires du cortex.

Cortex insulaire

Section coronale du cerveau humain, révélant les différentes partie du cortex. L'insula est indiqué en haut, à droite. Le cortex insulaire est divisé en deux parties : une large insula antérieure et une petite insula postérieure, dans laquelle ont été identifiées plus d'une douzaine d'aires différentes. Math Anxiety: The Brain Can Feel The Pain.

The fMRI scans showed the worry of upcoming math events triggered a response in the brain similar to physical pain. The higher the anxiety about math, the more math anticipation activated the posterior insula. Earlier studies have indicated that other forms of psychological stress, like a traumatic break-up, or social rejection, can also cause feelings of physical pain. However, this particular study analyzes the pain response connected with anticipating an anxiety-inducing event, instead of the pain connected to the stressful event itself. – weihler

Excitotoxicity. ROS and apoptosis. Role in cancer therapy. Science of Stoke, Mechanisms in Search of Treatments. Mapping brain circuits for specific functions. MIT neuroscientists used calcium imaging to label these pyramidal cells in the brain (credit: Qian Chen/MIT) A team led by MIT neuroscientists has developed a way to monitor how brain cells coordinate with each other to control specific behaviors, such as initiating movement or detecting an odor.

Visualization. MIT-led team created a calcium-imaging system that can be targeted to specific cell types, using a type of green fluorescent protein (GFP). The MIT researchers genetically engineered mice to express this protein in a type of neuron known as pyramidal cells, by pairing the gene with a regulatory DNA sequence that is only active in those specific types of cells. Using two-photon microscopy to image the cells at high speed and high resolution, the researchers can identify pyramidal cells that are active when the brain is performing a specific task or responding to a certain stimulus. The researchers are now developing mice that express the calcium-sensitive proteins and also exhibit symptoms of autistic behavior and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Using these mice, the researchers plan to look for neuron firing patterns that differ from normal mice. This could help identify exactly what goes wrong at the cellular level, offering mechanistic insights into those diseases. – weihler

The researchers’ new imaging technique, based on the detection of calcium ions in neurons, could help them map the brain circuits that perform such functions.

Mapping brain circuits for specific functions

Blue Brain Project Accurately Predicts Connections between Neurons. 26.09.12 - Proof of concept: researchers identify principles to support brain simulation models One of the greatest challenges in neuroscience is to identify the map of synaptic connections between neurons.

Blue Brain Project Accurately Predicts Connections between Neurons

Called the “connectome,” it is the holy grail that will explain how information flows in the brain. First micro-structure atlas of the human brain completed. A European team of scientists have built the first atlas of white-matter microstructure in the human brain.

First micro-structure atlas of the human brain completed

The project’s final results have the potential to change the face of neuroscience and medicine over the coming decade. The work relied on groundbreaking MRI technology and was funded by the EU’s future and emerging technologies program with a grant of 2.4 million Euros. The participants of the project, called CONNECT, were drawn from leading research centres in countries across Europe including Israel, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland and Italy.

The Brain CONNECT Project. Brain Wiring, Electic Impulses, Henry Markram. Synchrone Oszillationen, zeitliche Codierung.

Als Lösung für das Bindungsproblem wurde zunächst diskutiert, ob es vielleicht im Gehirn einen Bereich gibt, der ausschließlich für die bewusste Wahrnehmung zuständig ist. Trotz intensiver Suche konnte aber ein solcher Hirnbereich, der sozusagen das Bewusstsein repräsentieren würde, bisher nicht gefunden werden. Zudem hat die Theorie noch einen weiteren Haken. „Wenn es für jede denkbare Situation eine eigene Zelle gäbe, dann entstünde eine kombinatorische Explosion“, sagt Wolf Singer. Es gibt zwar eine sehr große Zahl an Nervenzellen. Dem steht aber eine sehr große Zahl an möglichen Sinneseindrücken gegenüber, und für jede Kombination aus diesen Eindrücken müsste es mindestens eine Zelle geben. Das ist selbst mit Milliarden von Hirnzellen nicht machbar. Zeit als Kodierungsraum: Wie aber könnte das Bindungsproblem gelöst werden? Ein für die Situation spezifisches Muster an Hirnarealen ist aktiv und steht in einem zeitlichen Zusammenhang. – weihler
Das System weicht also in die Zeit aus als Kodierungsraum. Unsere bewusste Wahrnehmung entsteht also möglicherweise nicht in einem bestimmten Hirnbereich, sondern sie ist mit Hilfe von Oszillationen zeitlich kodiert. Vielleicht gilt das auch für alle anderen bewussten Denkprozesse. – weihler

Brain Wiring, MRI, Water. London’s streets are a mess.

For years, scientists have been able to trace the outlines of individual neurons by injecting them with telltale chemicals that migrate along their lengths. But this technique can only be used in dead brains, and it’s small in scale. To get the big picture, Wedeen turned to diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a technique that uses magnetic fields to detect the water flowing along our neurons. By tracking these streams, Wedeen mapped the brain’s white matter fibres – the tracts that carry signals from one area to another. They are the original information superhighways, and Wedeen could see huge groups of them at once. – weihler

Roads bend sharply, end abruptly, and meet each other at unlikely angles.

Brain Wiring, MRI, Water

Intuitively, you might think that the cells of our brain are arranged in a similarly haphazard pattern, forming connections in random places and angles. But a new study suggests that our mental circuitry is more like Manhattan’s organised grid than London’s chaotic tangle. Möglichkeiten der Intervention Neurochemie 1. New Technique Could Enable Personalized Medicine. Glutamate and GABA Balance. Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter.

Glutamate and GABA Balance

While I am thinking, talking, processing and sharing with you, the glutamate receptors in my neurons are functioning actively to take glutamate into the cell. Astrocytes Target for New Depression Therapy. Tufts neuroscientists find that starry brain cells can be used to mimic sleep deprivation.

Sleep deprivation (particularly deprivation of rapid eye movement sleep), has been shown to be effective immediately in approximately 60% of patients with major depressive disorders. Although widely-recognized as helpful, it is not always ideal because it can be uncomfortable for patients, and the effects are not long-lasting. – weihler

Neuroscience researchers from Tufts University have found that our star-shaped brain cells, called astrocytes, may be responsible for the rapid improvement in mood in depressed patients after acute sleep deprivation. This in vivo study, published in the current issue of Translational Psychiatry, identified how astrocytes regulate a neurotransmitter involved in sleep. The researchers report that the findings may help lead to the development of effective and fast-acting drugs to treat depression, particularly in psychiatric emergencies. Drugs are widely used to treat depression, but often take weeks to work effectively. Sleep deprivation, however, has been shown to be effective immediately in approximately 60% of patients with major depressive disorders. Myelin Covers and Distance of nodes cruical for Signal Speed.

Intellectual Disability-Protein Regulation.

While many intellectual disabilities are caused directly by a genetic mutation in the so-called "protein coding" part of our genes, the researchers found that in their case the answer laid outside the gene and in the regulation of proteins. Protein regulation involves the switching on or off of a protein by specific genes. As a consequence in this case, either too much or too little of this protein can trigger the disability. Genetic samples taken from the family and laboratory testing involving mice have confirmed that the protein produced by the HCFC1 (host cell factor C1) gene is the cause of this disability. The vast majority of intellectual disabilities are due to genetic mutations in proteins, so it was rather unexpected that we found this particular disability to be due to a regulatory mutation. – weihler

Exercise May Help Preserve Memory and Thinking Skills. Stuart Bradford Remaining physically active as you age, a new study shows, may help protect parts of your brain from shrinking, a process that has been linked to declines in thinking and memory skills.

Physical exercise not only protected against such age-related brain changes, but also had more of an effect than mentally and socially stimulating activities. University of Edinburgh followed more than 600 people, starting at age 70. The subjects provided details on their daily physical, mental and social activities. Three years later, using imaging scans, the scientists found that the subjects who engaged in the most physical exercise, including walking several times a week, had less shrinkage and damage in the brain’s white matter, which is considered the “wiring” of the brain’s communication system. – weihler

Physical exercise not only protected against such age-related brain changes, but also had more of an effect than mentally and socially stimulating activities. In the new report, published in the journal Neurology, a team at the University of Edinburgh followed more than 600 people, starting at age 70. The subjects provided details on their daily physical, mental and social activities. Lobes. Neuroradiology. HeadNeckBrainSpine. Novartis "Reflections" Campaign.