Second generation biofuels - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - Second generation biofuels, also known as advanced biofuels, are fuels that can be manufactured from various types of biomass.
Biomass is a wide-ranging term meaning any source of organic carbon that is renewed rapidly as part of the carbon cycle. Biomass is derived from plant materials but can also include animal materials. First generation biofuels are made from the sugars and vegetable oils found in arable crops, which can be easily extracted using conventional technology. In comparison, second generation biofuels are made from lignocellulosic biomass or woody crops, agricultural residues or waste, which makes it harder to extract the required fuel. Introduction Second generation biofuels can help solve these problems and can supply a larger proportion of our fuel supply sustainably, affordably, and with greater environmental benefits. Second generation technology The following subsections describe the main second generation routes currently under development.
Biofuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - (Build 201004010646. A biofuel is a fuel that contains energy from geologically recent carbon fixation.
These fuels are produced from living organisms. Examples of this carbon fixation occur in plants and microalgae. These fuels are made by a biomass conversion (biomass refers to recently living organisms, most often referring to plants or plant-derived materials). This biomass can be converted to convenient energy containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion, and biochemical conversion. Biodiesel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - (Build 2010040106. Bus run by biodiesel Space-filling model of methyl linoleate, or linoleic acid methyl ester, a common methyl ester produced from soybean or canola oil and methanol Space-filling model of ethyl stearate, or stearic acid ethyl ester, an ethyl ester produced from soybean or canola oil and ethanol Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.
Biodiesel is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, animal fat (tallow)) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters. Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct from the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines. The National Biodiesel Board (USA) also has a technical definition of "biodiesel" as a mono-alkyl ester. Blends Biodiesel sample Applications Distribution Vehicular use and manufacturer acceptance
Alcohol fuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - (Build 2010040. A dish of ethanol aflame Throughout history, alcohol has been used as a fuel.
The first four aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol) are of interest as fuels because they can be synthesized chemically or biologically, and they have characteristics which allow them to be used in internal combustion engines. The general chemical formula for alcohol fuel is CnH2n+1OH. Most methanol is produced from natural gas, although it can be produced from biomass using very similar chemical processes. Ethanol is commonly produced from biological material through fermentation processes. One advantage shared by the four major alcohol fuels is their high octane rating. Methanol and ethanol
Biogas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - (Build 2010040106463. Pipes carrying biogas (foreground), natural gas and condensate Biogas typically refers to a mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
Biogas can be produced from regionally available raw materials such as recycled waste. It is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts a very small carbon footprint. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking. Biogas can be compressed, the same way natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. Production Biogas production in rural Germany Biogas is practically produced as landfill gas (LFG) or digested gas. Landfill gas Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a landfill. The methane in biogas is 20 times more potent a greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.
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