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Thinking

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Scientific Method

Argumentation. Fallacies. Reasoning. Validity. List of thought processes. Nature of thought[edit] Thought (or thinking) can be described as all of the following: An activity taking place in a: brain – organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals (only a few invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfish, adult sea squirts and starfish do not have a brain).

List of thought processes

It is the physical structure associated with the mind. mind – abstract entity with the cognitive faculties of consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory. Having a mind is a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms.[1][2] Activities taking place in a mind are called mental processes or cognitive functions.computer (see automated reasoning, below) – general purpose device that can be programmed to carry out a set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Types of thoughts[edit]

Abstract thought

Philosophy since the Enlightenment, by Roger Jones. Project Renaissance with Win Wenger, Ph.D. Natural Brilliance by Paul Scheele. A new breakthrough allows this guaranteed claim.

Natural Brilliance by Paul Scheele

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Body Thinking

Lateral Thinking. Thinking outside the box. The "nine dots" puzzle.

Thinking outside the box

The goal of the puzzle is to link all 9 dots using four straight lines or fewer, without lifting the pen and without tracing the same line more than once. One solution appears below. Creativity. Serendipity. Serendipity means a "fortunate happenstance" or "pleasant surprise".

Serendipity

It was coined by Horace Walpole in 1754. In a letter he wrote to a friend Walpole explained an unexpected discovery he had made by reference to a Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip. The princes, he told his correspondent, were “always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things which they were not in quest of”. The notion of serendipity is a common occurrence throughout the history of scientific innovation such as Alexander Fleming's accidental discovery of penicillin in 1928 and the invention of the microwave oven by Percy Spencer in 1945, the invention of the Post-it note by Spencer Silver in 1968. The word has been voted one of the ten English words hardest to translate in June 2004 by a British translation company.[1] However, due to its sociological use, the word has been exported into many other languages.[2] Etymology[edit]

Divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a thought process or method used to generate creative ideas by exploring many possible solutions.

Divergent thinking

Systems Thinking. Six Thinking Hats. Six Thinking Hats is a book by Edward de Bono which describes a tool for group discussion and individual thinking involving six colored hats.

Six Thinking Hats

"Six Thinking Hats" and the associated idea parallel thinking provide a means for groups to plan thinking processes in a detailed and cohesive way, and in doing so to think together more effectively.[2] Underlying principles[edit] The premise of the method is that the human brain thinks in a number of distinct ways which can be deliberately challenged, and hence planned for use in a structured way allowing one to develop tactics for thinking about particular issues. de Bono identifies six distinct directions in which the brain can be challenged. In each of these directions the brain will identify and bring into conscious thought certain aspects of issues being considered (e.g. gut instinct, pessimistic judgement, neutral facts). Since the hats do not represent natural modes of thinking, each hat must be used for a limited time only. Summary[edit] Magical thinking. Magical thinking is the attribution of causal relationships between actions and events which cannot be justified by reason and observation.

Magical thinking

In religion, folk religion, and superstitious beliefs, the correlation posited is often between religious ritual, prayer, sacrifice, or the observance of a taboo, and an expected benefit or recompense. In clinical psychology, magical thinking can cause a patient to experience fear of performing certain acts or having certain thoughts because of an assumed correlation between doing so and threatening calamities. Techniques for Creative Thinking. Techniques for Creative Thinking This tutorial contains specific approaches to focus design thinking on creative, unusual, and unique solutions.

Techniques for Creative Thinking

Step one: Write down the message to be communicated in the design. Put it in a brief, one-line statement. Step two: Using each of the following techniques, explore different ways to communicate the message.