Aristotle - On Rhetoric. Rhetorica ad Herennium.
Figure of speech. A figure of speech is the use of a word or a phrase, which transcends its literal interpretation.
It can be a special repetition, arrangement or omission of words with literal meaning, or a phrase with a specialized meaning not based on the literal meaning of the words in it, as in idiom, metaphor, simile, hyperbole, personification, or synecdoche. Figures of speech often provide emphasis, freshness of expression, or clarity. However, clarity may also suffer from their use, as any figure of speech introduces an ambiguity between literal and figurative interpretation. A figure of speech is sometimes called a rhetorical figure or a locution. Category:Rhetoric theorists. Silva Rhetoricae: The Forest of Rhetoric.