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Bulletin board system. History[edit] Precursors[edit] A precursor to the public bulletin board system was Community Memory, started in August 1973 in Berkeley, California.

Bulletin board system

Useful microcomputers did not exist at that time, and modems were both expensive and slow. Community Memory therefore ran on a mainframe computer and was accessed through terminals located in several San Francisco Bay Area neighborhoods.[2] The poor quality of the original modem connecting the terminals to the mainframe prompted a user to invent the Pennywhistle modem, whose design was highly influential in the mid-1970s. Community Memory allowed the user to type messages into a terminal after inserting a coin, and offered a "pure" bulletin board experience with public messages only (no email or other features). The first BBSes[edit] Ward Christensen holds an expansion card from the original CBBS S-100 host machine. Early modems were generally very simple devices using acoustic couplers to handle telephone operation. Smartmodem[edit] GUIs[edit] Iodine. Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

Iodine

The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of elemental iodine vapor.[3] Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers. Iodine's relatively high atomic number, low toxicity, and ease of attachment to organic compounds have made it a part of many X-ray contrast materials in modern medicine.

Iodine has only one stable isotope. A number of iodine radioisotopes, such as 131I, are also used in medical applications. Iodine is found on Earth mainly as the highly water-soluble iodide ion I−, which concentrates it in oceans and brine pools. Iodine is required by higher animals for synthesizing thyroid hormones, which contain the element. Characteristics[edit] In the gas phase, iodine shows its violet color. Thirty Seconds to Mars. Thirty Seconds to Mars (commonly stylized as 30 Seconds to Mars) is an American rock band from Los Angeles, California, formed in 1998.

Thirty Seconds to Mars

The band consists of Jared Leto (lead vocals, guitar, bass, keyboards), Shannon Leto (drums, percussion) and Tomo Miličević (lead guitar, bass, violin, keyboards, other instruments). History Formation and first years (1998–2000) Classical conditioning. Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a process of behavior analysis in which an innate response to a potent biological stimulus becomes expressed in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus and the potent biological stimulus that elicits the desired response.

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning was made famous by Ivan Pavlov and his experiments conducted with dogs. Classical conditioning became the basis for a theory of how organisms learn, and a philosophy of psychology developed by John B. Watson, B. F. Declarative programming. Common declarative languages include those of database query languages (e.g., SQL, XQuery), regular expressions, logic programming, functional programming, and configuration management systems.

Declarative programming

Definition[edit] Declarative programming is often defined as any style of programming that is not imperative. A number of other common definitions exist that attempt to give the term a definition other than simply contrasting it with imperative programming. Control flow. Within an imperative programming language, a control flow statement is a statement whose execution results in a choice being made as to which of two or more paths should be followed.

Control flow

For non-strict functional languages, functions and language constructs exist to achieve the same result, but they are not necessarily called control flow statements. The kinds of control flow statements supported by different languages vary, but can be categorized by their effect: Primitives[edit] Labels[edit] Line numbers are an alternative to a named label (and used in some languages such as Fortran and BASIC), that are whole numbers placed at the beginning of each line of text within the source code.

Success: printf("The operation was successful. Software flow control. Representation[edit] The ASCII standard does not reserve any control characters for use as XON/XOFF specifically.

Software flow control

However, it does provide four generic "device control" characters (DC1 through DC4). Fibonacci number. A tiling with squares whose side lengths are successive Fibonacci numbers In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are the numbers in the following integer sequence, called the Fibonacci sequence, and characterized by the fact that every number after the first two is the sum of the two preceding ones: Often, especially in modern usage, the sequence is extended by one more initial term: The Fibonacci spiral: an approximation of the golden spiral created by drawing circular arcs connecting the opposite corners of squares in the Fibonacci tiling;[4] this one uses squares of sizes 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, and 34.

Fibonacci number

By definition, the first two numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are either 1 and 1, or 0 and 1, depending on the chosen starting point of the sequence, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two. In mathematical terms, the sequence Fn of Fibonacci numbers is defined by the recurrence relation. Dd (Unix) Dd is a command-line utility for Unix and Unix-like operating systems whose primary purpose is to convert and copy files.[1] On Unix, device drivers for hardware (such as hard disks) and special device files (such as /dev/zero and /dev/random) appear in the file system just like normal files; dd can also read and/or write from/to these files, provided that function is implemented in their respective driver.

dd (Unix)

As a result, dd can be used for tasks such as backing up the boot sector of a hard drive, and obtaining a fixed amount of random data. The dd program can also perform conversions on the data as it is copied, including byte order swapping and conversion to and from the ASCII and EBCDIC text encodings.[2] The name dd may be an allusion to the DD statement found in IBM's Job Control Language (JCL),[3] where the initials stand for "Data Description.

Usage varies across different operating systems. For some uses of the dd command, block size may have an effect on performance. Atom (text editor) It is based on Sublime Text and borrows a considerable amount of features from it.

Atom (text editor)

Initially, extension packages for Atom and anything not part of Atom's core were released under an open-source license. On 6 May 2014, the rest of Atom, including the core application, Atom's package manager, and Atom's Chromium-based desktop application framework, Electron (formerly known as Atom Shell[8]), were released as free software under the MIT License.[9] Desktop publishing. Desktop publishing (abbreviated DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer. Desktop publishing software can generate layouts and produce typographic quality text and images comparable to traditional typography and printing.

This technology allows individuals, businesses, and other organizations to self-publish a wide range of printed matter. Desktop publishing is also the main reference for digital typography. When used skillfully, desktop publishing allows the user to produce a wide variety of materials, from menus to magazines and books, without the expense of commercial printing.

Desktop publishing combines a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution. History[edit] Agile software development. Agile software development is a set of principles for software development in which requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing,[1] cross-functional teams. It promotes adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement, and it encourages rapid and flexible response to change.[2] Agile itself has never defined any specific methods to achieve this, but many have grown up as a result and have been recognized as being 'Agile'. The Manifesto for Agile Software Development,[3] also known as the Agile Manifesto, was first proclaimed in 2001, after "agile methodology" was originally introduced in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

The manifesto came out of the DSDM Consortium in 1994, although its roots go back to the mid 1980s at DuPont and texts by James Martin[4] and James Kerr et al.[5] History[edit] Incremental software development methods trace back to 1957.[6] In 1974, E. The Agile Manifesto[edit] Ethereum. Ethereum is a blockchain-based virtual machine and Web 3.0 platform featuring stateful user-created digital contracts and a Turing-complete contract programming language. Ethereum uses its underlying network unit, Ether, as payment to execute Ethereum contracts as a workaround to the halting problem.

Dynamic Kernel Module Support. Dynamic Kernel Module Support (DKMS) is a program/framework that enables generating Linux kernel modules whose sources generally reside outside the kernel source tree. The concept is to have DKMS modules automatically rebuilt when a new kernel is installed. An essential feature of DKMS is that it automatically recompiles all DKMS modules if a new kernel version is installed. This allows drivers and devices outside of the mainline kernel to continue working after a Linux kernel upgrade.

Another benefit of DKMS is that it allows the installation of a new driver on an existing system, running an arbitrary kernel version, without any need for manual compilation or precompiled packages provided by the vendor. List of Java virtual machines. This article provides non-exhaustive lists of Java SE Java virtual machines (JVMs). It does not include a large number of Java ME vendors. Note that Java EE runs on the standard Java SE JVM but that some vendors specialize in providing a modified JVM optimized for Java EE applications. ZeroVM. Boolean algebra. Arkanoid. Wmctrl. Knights and Knaves. Labyrinth. FrontPage - JythonWiki. The purpose of a programming language is to let software developers express their intentions as simply and directly as possible. - JimHugunin.

GLX. The Linux DRI Graphic Stack in 2013. Klik (packaging method) Klik was a system for software download and usage on GNU/Linux. Hybris (software) Hybris has also been picked up by the Open webOS community for WebOS Ports,[6][7] and by Canonical for Ubuntu Touch.[5][8] libhybris enables Android device drivers to be used on glibc-based Linux systems The main feature of Hybris is overriding of Bionic calls and their translation into glibc calls, thus allowing Bionic-based software to be used on glibc-based Linux distributions.[3] Official website. UC Browser. PU learning. Nashorn (JavaScript engine) Database.

SpiderMonkey (JavaScript engine) Message Passing Interface. Computer cluster. Zfone. Unified Expression Language. Asm.js. Waffle (disambiguation) Blackbird (online platform) Netscape. Internet OS. Component Object Model. Switch statement. NPAPI. Comparison of application servers. Middleware. Natural language processing. HTML5 in mobile devices. Strategic business unit. Top-down and bottom-up design.