Eastern philosophy

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Taijitu. Classic Taoist taijitu of 'fish-like' shape Patterns similar to the taijitu also form part of Celtic, Etruscan, Roman and much earlier Cucuteni-Trypillian culture iconography, where they are loosely referred to as yin yang symbols by modern scholars;[1][2][3] however no relationship between these and the Chinese symbol has been established.


Geometric figure[edit] Yin yang grown in nature Drawing the taijitu (animation) Lojong. Lojong (Tib.


བློ་སྦྱོང་,Wylie: blo sbyong) is a mind training practice in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition based on a set of aphorisms formulated in Tibet in the 12th century by Geshe Chekhawa. The practice involves refining and purifying one's motivations and attitudes. Mushin. Mushin (無心; Japanese mushin; English translation "no mind") is a mental state into which very highly trained martial artists are said to enter during combat.[1] They also practice this mental state during everyday activities.


The term is shortened from mushin no shin (無心の心), a Zen expression meaning the mind without mind and is also referred to as the state of "no-mindness". That is, a mind not fixed or occupied by thought or emotion and thus open to everything. Some masters believe that mushin is the state where a person finally understands the uselessness of techniques and becomes truly free to move. Neidan and Waidan: Taoist Alchemy. The Golden Elixir ▶ Taoist Alchemy Fabrizio Pregadio Background Liu Haichan, a Taoist immortal associated with several alchemical traditions Taoist alchemy aims to afford an understanding of how the cosmos and the human being are related to the highest principle, the Dao.

Neidan and Waidan: Taoist Alchemy

Proximate and ultimate causation. A proximate cause is an event which is closest to, or immediately responsible for causing, some observed result.

Proximate and ultimate causation

This exists in contrast to a higher-level ultimate cause (or distal cause) which is usually thought of as the "real" reason something occurred. Example: Why did the ship sink?