Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist with a focus on mathematical physics who is a professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study , in Princeton, New Jersey.
Charles Robert Darwin , FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist . [I] He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors , [ 1 ] and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection , in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding . [ 2 ] Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species , overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species . [ 3 ] [ 4 ] By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public had accepted evolution as a fact .
Albert Einstein ( pron.: / ˈ æ l b ər t ˈ aɪ n s t aɪ n / ; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] (
Signature of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci ( Italian pronunciation: [leoˈnardo da ˈvintʃi]
James Clerk Maxwell FRS FRSE (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish theoretical physicist . [ 1 ] His most prominent achievement was formulating a set of equations that unite all previously unrelated observations, experiments, and equations of electricity , magnetism , and optics into a consistent theory. [ 2 ] His theory of classical electromagnetism demonstrate that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon , namely the electromagnetic field . Maxwell's achievements concerning electromagnetism have been called the "second great unification in physics", [ 3 ] after the first one realised by Isaac Newton .
Sir Isaac Newton PRS MP (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution . His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics .
Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham (Persian : ابن هيثم, Arabic : أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized : Alhacen or (deprecated) [ 4 ] Alhazen ) (965 in Basra – c. 1040 in Cairo ) was a Muslim [ 5 ] scientist , polymath , mathematician , astronomer and philosopher , described in various sources as either Persian or Arab . [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 7 ] [ 10 ] He made significant contributions to the principles of optics , as well as to astronomy , mathematics , visual perception , and to the scientific method . He also wrote insightful commentaries on works by Aristotle , Ptolemy , and the Greek mathematician Euclid . [ 11 ]
Galileo Galilei ( Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi] ; 15 February 1564 [ 4 ] – 8 January 1642), [ 5 ] was an Italian physicist , mathematician , astronomer , and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution .