Theories of Crime: Classical, Biological, Sociological, Interactionist. Pcdint95. 4) Interactionist perspective. Interactionists disagree with functionalist on both the idea that society has a consensus about what crime is and the idea that crime is caused by “external forces”.
Instead Blumer said everybody commits crimes and deviance, it is more important to look at the way society reacts to this behaviour. Howard Becker said that society creates rules, and by doing this anyone who acts outside of these rules is a deviant. Therefore the act itself isn’t deviant, it is how we label that act that makes it deviant. Interactionists would point out how in one context, an act is considered deviant, in another it is normal – it is only when it is done in a way that is not publicly defined as proper that it becomes deviant.
For example, killing is not always deviant or criminal, during war it is more deviant to refuse to kill. Interactionists say this labelling can lead to groups being victimized for crime. Evaluation Like this: Like Loading... A blog set up to help A Level students revise Sociology. The Interactionist Perspective. The Functionalist Perspective on Deviance. 2) Functionalist perspective. Crime is inevitable – Durkheim, a functionalist, said that crime is inevitable in society.
This is because not everyone will buy into the collective sentiments of society, and will deviate from these norms and beliefs. Durkheim said a certain amount of crime and deviance as normal and an integral part of all healthy societies. This is because it acts as a ‘safety valve’, providing a relatively harmless way for someone to express their discontent. For example, Cohen said that “prostitution performs such a safety valve function without threatening the institution of the family”, this is because he believed this crime of prostitution could relieve the stress in a discrete way without damaging the rest of the clients life. Clinard said crime also served the function of acting as a warning device. Durkheim said that crime in society isn’t genetically produced, but is natural in society. Merton and Anomie Merton observed American culture.
Evaluation of Merton Like this: Like Loading... The Functionalist Perspective. The Marxist Perspective on Society. Includes some of the Key Ideas of Karl Marx, including Bourgeoisie/ Proletariat, exploitation, false consciousness, ideological control, and revolution.
This is a simplified version of Marxist Theory designed for second year A level students In order to fully understand Marxism, you need to understand the work of Karl Marx, who produced most of his writing between 1840 and 1870. Under Capitalism there are two basic classes- The Bourgeois and The ProletariatThe relationship between these two classes is exploitative because the amount of money the employer pays the worker is less than the total value of goods that worker produces. The difference between the two is called surplus value. Marx thus says that the capitalist extracts surplus value from the worker.
As far as Marx was concerned, he had realised the truth, and he believed that political action was necessary to ‘wake up’ the proletariat and bring them to revolutionary class consciousness. Eight Criticisms of Traditional Marxism. Pcdevmx. Marxism and Crime. Marxists essentially see crime and deviance as defined by the ruling class and used as a means of social control – if you don’t conform then you will be punished.
Institutions such as the police, the justice system, prisons and schools, the family and religion are there to encourage you to conform. They argue that white collar crimes (which tend to be committed by the more powerful in society) are ignored, while crimes committed by the less powerful in society such as burglary and street crime are focussed on and seen as more serious. Marxists would also argue that different social classes are policed differently, with the working class heavily policed in the expectation that they will be more criminal and therefore raising the chances of their crimes being detected. Marxist sociologists such as Milton Mankoff, Frank Pearce and Laureen Snider see power as largely being held by those who own and control the means of production. Functionalism (philosophy of mind) - Wikipedia. Since mental states are identified by a functional role, they are said to be realized on multiple levels; in other words, they are able to be manifested in various systems, even perhaps computers, so long as the system performs the appropriate functions.
While computers are physical devices with electronic substrate that perform computations on inputs to give outputs, so brains are physical devices with neural substrate that perform computations on inputs which produce behaviors. An important part of some accounts of functionalism is the idea of multiple realizability. Since, according to standard functionalist theories, mental states are the corresponding functional role, mental states can be sufficiently explained without taking into account the underlying physical medium (e.g. the brain, neurons, etc.) that realizes such states; one need only take into account the higher-level functions in the cognitive system.
A Level Sociology Revision. Report Writing Support. As you write, ask yourself: Why have they asked for a report?
What do they need to know? How will they use the report? Throughout your study and future career you will write reports for people who have little or no background in the area of work your report covers. If this is your audience, then your report should be easy to understand. On the other hand, if you are writing a technical report intended to be read by a team of engineers, you can assume a level of prior knowledge and use specialised technical language. Australian Institute of Criminology - Crime types.