Motivation. Consciousness. Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century At one time consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists, but in recent years it has become a significant topic of research in psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience.
The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness by asking human subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do this").
Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, blindsight, denial of impairment, and altered states of consciousness produced by drugs and alcohol, or spiritual or meditative techniques. Etymology and early history John Locke, British philosopher active in the 17th century. Self-esteem. Self-esteem is a disposition that a person has which represents their judgments of their own worthiness. In the mid-1960s, sociologist Morris Rosenberg defined self-esteem as a feeling of self-worth and developed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES), which became the most-widely used scale to measure self-esteem in the social sciences. Nathaniel Branden in 1969 defined self-esteem as "the experience of being competent to cope with the basic challenges of life and being worthy of happiness.
" According to Branden, self-esteem is the sum of self-confidence (a feeling of personal capacity) and self-respect (a feeling of personal worth). It exists as a consequence of the implicit judgment that every person has of their ability to face life's challenges, to understand and solve problems, and their right to achieve happiness, and be given respect. Theories Many early theories suggested that self-esteem is a basic human need or motivation. Development Information processing theory. The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology.
Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. Emergence Beginning in the 1950s, a major change occurred in the field of Psychology that has come to be known as the Cognitive Revolution. A central metaphor that was adopted by cognitivists at this time was the computer, which served to provide these researchers important clues and directions in understanding the human brain and how it processes information.
Human as computer Cognitive processes Cognitive-Blooms. Sundberg-learning-theories. Types%20of%20Intelligence. Learning. Systems of Instruction. Conditioning. Motivation and Memory. Long-Term Memory. Memory. Myers-Briggs. A chart with descriptions of each Myers–Briggs personality type and the four dichotomies central to the theory The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire designed to indicate psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions. The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.
History Katharine Cook Briggs began her research into personality in 1917. Upon meeting her future son-in-law, she observed marked differences between his personality and that of other family members. After the English translation of Jung's book Psychological Types was published in 1923 (first published in German in 1921), she recognized that Jung's theory was similar to, but went far beyond, her own.:22 Briggs's four types were later identified as corresponding to the IXXXs, EXXPs, EXTJs and EXFJs. Origins of the theory Differences from Jung Judging vs. perception