Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century. Consciousness is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It has been defined as: subjectivity , awareness , sentience , the ability to experience or to feel , wakefulness, having a sense of selfhood , and the executive control system of the mind. [ 3 ] Despite the difficulty in definition, many philosophers believe that there is a broadly shared underlying intuition about what consciousness is. [ 4 ] As Max Velmans and Susan Schneider wrote in The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness : "Anything that we are aware of at a given moment forms part of our consciousness, making conscious experience at once the most familiar and most mysterious aspect of our lives." [ 5 ] Philosophers since the time of Descartes and Locke have struggled to comprehend the nature of consciousness and pin down its essential properties.
Self-esteem Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person 's overall emotional evaluation of his or her own worth. It is a judgement of oneself as well as an attitude toward the self. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent", "I am worthy") and emotions such as triumph, despair , pride and shame . [ 1 ] Smith and Mackie define it by saying "The self-concept is what we think about the self; self-esteem, is the positive or negative evaluations of the self, as in how we feel about it." [ 2 ] Self-esteem is also known as the evaluative dimension of the self that includes feelings of worthiness, prides and discouragement. [ 3 ] One's self-esteem is also closely associated with self-consciousness . [ 4 ] . The four types of behaviors of self-esteem are: disclosure, seeking acceptance, engaging in a pastime, and introspection. [ 5 ]
The information processing theory approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology . Developmental psychologists who adopt the information-processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child’s mind. The theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli. This perspective equates the mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment. Information processing theory
Systems of Instruction
Motivation and Memory
Carl Jung in 1910. Myers and Briggs extrapolated their MBTI theory from Jung's writings in his book Psychological Types . The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. [ 1 ] :1 These preferences were extrapolated from the typological theories proposed by Carl Gustav Jung and first published in his 1921 book Psychological Types (English edition, 1923 [ 2 ] ). Jung theorized that there are four principal psychological functions by which we experience the world: sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking. [ 3 ] One of these four functions is dominant most of the time.