The Settlers (Earth Paleogeography Included)
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The Vedic period (or Vedic age ) was a period in history during which the Vedas , the oldest scriptures of Hinduism , were composed. The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda , the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period. [ 1 ] The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE, and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature . Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone, [ 3 ] and a literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times. Despite the difficulties in dating the period, the Vedas can safely be assumed to be several thousands of years old.
Indra Śakra is the leader of the Devas or gods and the lord of Svargaloka or heaven in the Hindu religion. He is the god of rain and thunderstorms. [ 1 ] He wields a lightning thunderbolt known as vajra and rides on a white elephant known as Airavata . Indra is one of the chief deities and is the twin brother of Agni , said to be born of Dyaus Pitar (Father Heaven) and Prithvi Mata (Mother Earth). [ 2 ] He is also mentioned as an Aditya , son of Aditi . His home is situated on Mount Meru in the heaven. [ 3 ] He has many epithets, notably vṛṣan the bull, and vṛtrahan , slayer of Vṛtra, Meghavahana "the one who rides the clouds" and Devapati "the lord of gods or devas". [ 3 ] Indra appears as the name of an Daeva in the Zoroastrian religion, while his epithet Verethragna appears as a god of victory.
The Sarasvati River ( Sanskrit : सरस्वती नदी sárasvatī nadī ) is one of the chief Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts. The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert. The goddess Sarasvati was originally a personification of this river, but later developed an independent identity and gained meaning. The identification of the Vedic Sarasvati River with the Ghaggar-Hakra River was accepted by a number of scholars already in the 19th and early 20th century, including Christian Lassen , [ 1 ] Max Müller , [ 2 ] Marc Aurel Stein , C.F.
The Vedas ( Sanskrit वेदाः véda , " knowledge ") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India . Composed in Vedic Sanskrit , the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] The Vedas are apauruṣeya ("not of human agency"). [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti ("what is heard"), [ 6 ] [ 7 ] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). The Vedic texts or śruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Saṃhitā s, of which the first three are related to the performance of yajna ( sacrifice ) in historical Vedic religion : The Rigveda , containing hymns to be recited by the hotṛ ; The Yajurveda , containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest; The Samaveda , containing formulas to be sung by the udgātṛ .
Rama with Sita on the throne, their children Lava and Kusha on their laps. Behind the throne, Lakshamana, Bharat and Shatrughna stand. Hanuman bows to Rama before the throne. Valmiki to the left Ramayana Scene, Gupta Art, Indian National Museum, New Delhi.
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The Mahabharata ( Sanskrit Mahābhārata महाभारत , IPA: [məɦaːˈbʱaːrət̪ə] ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India , the other being the Ramayana . [ 1 ] Besides its epic narrative of the Kurukshetra War and the fates of the Kauravas and the Pandava princes, the Mahabharata contains much philosophical and devotional material, such as a discussion of the four "goals of life" or purusharthas (12.161).
The Rigveda ( Sanskrit : ऋग्वेद ṛgveda , a compound of ṛc "praise, verse" [ 1 ] and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns . [ 2 ] It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts ( śruti ) of Hinduism known as the Vedas . [ 3 ] Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers, at religious functions and other occasions, putting these among the world's oldest religious texts in continued use. The Rigveda contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc. [ 4 ] It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language . Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent , roughly between 1700–1100 BC [ 5 ] (the early Vedic period ).
The Upanishads ( Sanskrit : उपनिषद् , IAST : Upaniṣad , IPA: [upəniʂəd] ) are a collection of philosophical texts which form the theoretical basis for the Hindu religion . They are also known as Vedanta , the end of the veda . The Upanishads are considered by orthodox Hindus to contain revealed truths ( Sruti ) concerning the nature of ultimate reality ( brahman ) and describing the character and form of human salvation ( moksha ). The Upanishads are found mostly in the concluding part of the Brahmanas and Aranyakas and have been passed down in oral tradition . More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as the principal or main ( mukhya ) Upanishads.
The Bhagavad Gita ( Hindi : श्रीमद् भगवद् गीता , Śrīmad bhagavad gītā ) (pronounced: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː] ( listen ) ), The Song of the Bhagavan , often referred to as simply the Gita , is a 700-verse scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata . This scripture contains a conversation between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide Lord Krishna on a variety of theological and philosophical issues.
Models of the Indo-Aryan migration discuss scenarios of prehistoric migrations of the proto- Indo-Aryans to their historically attested areas of settlement in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent , generally considered to have started around 1500 BC. Claims of Indo-Aryan migration are drawn from linguistic , [ 1 ] genetic [ 2 ] . According to Shaffer, archaeological evidence for a mass population movement, or an invasion of South Asia in the pre- or proto- historic periods, has not been found. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] At best, there is evidence of small-scale migrations approaching South Asia. [ 6 ] [ 7 ] Indo-Aryan language derives from an earlier Proto-Indo-Iranian stage, usually identified with the Bronze Age Sintashta and Andronovo culture north-east of the Caspian Sea .
Indo-Iranian peoples are a grouping of ethnic groups consisting of the Indo-Aryan , Iranian , Dardic and Nuristani peoples; that is, speakers of Indo-Iranian languages , a major branch of the Indo-European language family . The Proto-Indo-Iranians are commonly identified with the descendants of the Proto-Indo-Europeans known as the Sintashta culture and the subsequent Andronovo culture within the broader Andronovo horizon, and their homeland with an area of the Eurasian steppe that borders the Ural River on the west, the Tian Shan on the east. [ edit ] Nomenclature
The Avesta ( pron.: / ə ˈ v ɛ s t ə / ) is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism , and is composed in the Avestan language . [ edit ] History [ edit ] Early transmission The texts of the Avesta — which are all in the Avestan language — were composed over the course of several hundred years. The most important portion, the Gathas , in older (before the works of Johanna Narten 'Gathic') Avestan , are the hymns thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself. The liturgical texts of the Yasna , which includes the Gathas, is in Older Avestan, with short, later additions in Younger Avestan.
The last glacial period was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age occurring during the last years of the Pleistocene , from approximately 110,000 to 10,000 years ago. [ 1 ] During this period there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat. The maximum extent of glaciation was approximately 22,000 years ago.
European prehistory has for over 100 years been divided into three main periods: Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The old Greeks had a different division, the five ages of man: the Golden Age; the Silver Age; Bronze Age I in which brazen-armed, savage, pitiless men fell from the ash trees; Bronze Age II which included the heroes who fought at the walls of Thebe and Troy; and the Iron Age, consisting of the inferior decendants from the age of heroes. Their Iron Age is also our Iron Age, although we call it Antiquity in the Greek part of the world. As regards the ages of gold and silver, those metals were known before bronze, during what we call the Stone Age. They are at a lower technological level than bronze, and especially iron made from ore.