The Settlers (Earth Paleogeography Included)

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Pearlers community. World History Maps by Thomas Lessman. 40 Historical Maps of the Eastern Hemisphere: by Thomas A.

World History Maps by Thomas Lessman

Lessman * Linked maps open in a new window. Unlinked maps are not complete or are otherwise unavailable. Prehistoric Maps (Early Humans to 3000 BC) No Prehistoric maps currently finished. Primeval History Maps (3000 BC to 601 BC) 3 Primeval maps currently finished. * Hittite Empire in 1300 BC Ancient History Maps (600 BC to 499 AD) 23 Ancient maps currently finished: Medieval History Maps (500 AD to 1500 AD) 13 Medieval maps currently finished. * 500 AD * 510 AD * 525 AD * Hephthalite Empires in 500 AD * 535 AD * 550 AD * 565 AD * 600 AD * 610 AD * 700 AD * Kushano-Hephthalite Kingdoms in 600 AD * Persian Sassanid Dynasty in 600 AD * Sindh (Chacha Dynasty) in 700 AD * Tibet in 700 and 800 AD. Asia 001ad. Vedic period.

The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed.

Vedic period

The time span of the period is uncertain. Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda, the oldest of the Vedas, was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE, also referred to as the early Vedic period.[1] The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE, and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature. Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone,[3] and a literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times. Indra. Origins[edit] Aspects of Indra as a deity are cognate to other Indo-European gods; they are either thunder gods such as Thor, Perun, and Zeus, or gods of intoxicating drinks such as Dionysus.


The name of Indra (Indara) is also mentioned among the gods of the Mitanni, a Hurrian-speaking people who ruled northern Syria from ca.1500BC-1300BC.[5] Vedic Indra corresponds to Verethragna of the Zoroastrian Avesta as the noun verethragna- corresponds to Vedic vrtrahan-, which is predominantly an epithet of Indra. Puru. Sarasvati River. The Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी sárasvatī nadī) is one of the main Rigvedic rivers mentioned in ancient Sanskrit texts.

Sarasvati River

The Nadistuti hymn in the Rigveda (10.75) mentions the Sarasvati between the Yamuna in the east and the Sutlej in the west, and later Vedic texts like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata mention that the Sarasvati dried up in a desert. The goddess Sarasvati was originally a personification of this river, but later developed an independent identity and gained a different meaning. [citation needed] Vedas. The Vedas (Sanskrit véda वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.


Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[1][2] The Vedas are apauruṣeya ("not of human agency").[3][4][5] They are supposed to have been directly revealed, and thus are called śruti ("what is heard"),[6][7] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered").

In Hindu tradition, the creation of Vedas is credited to Brahma.[8] The Vedic texts or śruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Saṃhitās, of which the first three are related to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical Vedic religion: The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. Some selected Vedic mantras are still recited at prayers, religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism. Chronology. Ramayana.

The Ramayana (Sanskrit: रामायणम्।


, Rāmāyaṇam, pronounced [rɑːˈmɑːjəɳəm]) is one of the great Hindu epics. It is ascribed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu literature (smṛti), considered to be itihāasa.[1] The Ramayana is one of the two great epics of Hinduism, the other being the Mahabharata.[2] It depicts the duties of relationships, portraying ideal characters like the ideal father, the ideal servant, the ideal brother, the ideal wife, and the ideal king. The name Ramayana is a tatpurusha compound of Rāma and ayana ("going, advancing"), translating to "Rama's Journey". Mahabharata. Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra. Rigveda. The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद ṛgveda, a compound of ṛc "praise, verse"[1] and veda "knowledge") is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.[2] It is counted among the four canonical sacred texts (śruti) of Hinduism known as the Vedas.[3] Some of its verses are still recited as Hindu prayers, at religious functions and other occasions, putting these as the world's oldest religious texts in continued use.[4] The Rigveda contains several mythological and poetical accounts of the origin of the world, hymns praising the gods, and ancient prayers for life, prosperity, etc.[5] It is one of the oldest extant texts in any Indo-European language.[6] Philological and linguistic evidence indicate that the Rigveda was composed in the north-western region of the Indian subcontinent, roughly between 1700–1100 BC[7] (the early Vedic period).


Text Organization Mandala The text is organized in 10 books, known as Mandalas, of varying age and length. Sukta. Upanishads. Bhagavad Gita. The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, Śrīmadbhagavadgītā, Sanskrit pronunciation: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː] ( )), literally meaning The Song of the Bhagavan, often referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the Hindu epic Mahabharata.

Bhagavad Gita

The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer the god-king Krishna. Facing the duty to kill his relatives, Arjuna is counselled by Krishna to "fulfill his Kshatriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and kill. " Inserted in this appeal to kshatriyadharma (heroism) is "a dialogue [...] between diverging attitudes concerning and methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha)". Indo-Aryan migration. Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an outside origin of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethno-linguistic group that speaks Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India. Proponents of Indo-Aryan origin outside of India generally consider migrations into South Asia from Central Asia to have started around 1500 BCE, as a slow diffusion during the Late Harappan period.

The Indo-Aryan migration theories began with the study of the Rig Veda in the mid 19th century by Max Muller, and gradually evolved from a theory of a large scale invasion of a racially and technologically superior people to being a slow diffusion of small numbers of nomadic people that had a disproportionate societal impact on a large urban population. Contemporary claims of Indo-Aryan migrations are drawn from linguistic, genetic, archaeological, literary and cultural sources. Development of the Aryan Migration Theory Scenarios Linguistic evidence. Indo-Iranians. Avesta. The Avesta /əˈvɛstə/ is the primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, and is composed in the Avestan language.


History[edit] Early transmission[edit] Earth Paleogeography. Last glacial period. The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age, was the most recent glacial period within the current ice age occurring during the last years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago.[1] During this period, there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat.

Last glacial period

The maximum extent of glaciation within this last glacial period was approximately 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat makes it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent (see picture of ice core data below for differences). Scandinavian ice sheet.

European prehistory has for over 100 years been divided into three main periods: Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The old Greeks had a different division, the five ages of man: the Golden Age; the Silver Age; Bronze Age I in which brazen-armed, savage, pitiless men fell from the ash trees; Bronze Age II which included the heroes who fought at the walls of Thebe and Troy; and the Iron Age, consisting of the inferior decendants from the age of heroes.

Their Iron Age is also our Iron Age, although we call it Antiquity in the Greek part of the world. As regards the ages of gold and silver, those metals were known before bronze, during what we call the Stone Age. They are at a lower technological level than bronze, and especially iron made from ore. So they tend to be exploited first, and thus also over-exploited first. A glacier is a very long event. A possibility: glaciers, islands, and storms are as much events as they are objects; as events, they are primarily composed of processes of and . A storm is a relatively brief event, a glacier is a very long event, and an island is an even longer event; yet all are, on a geological time scale, ephemeral. In fact, it might be reasonable to understand these events as geology, with all the inherent instability (on a geological time scale, no construct is stable), flux, and unpredictability that is implied by the study of geological events.

Jökulhlaup. A jökulhlaup (Icelandic pronunciation: [ˈjœːkʏl̥ˌl̥øip]) (literally 'glacier run') is a glacial outburst flood.[1] It is an Icelandic term that has been adopted by the English language. It originally referred to the well-known subglacial outburst floods from Vatnajökull, Iceland, which are triggered by geothermal heating and occasionally by a volcanic subglacial eruption, but it is now used to describe any large and abrupt release of water from a subglacial or proglacial lake/reservoir. Jökulhlaup process[edit] History of Africa. African States between 500 BCE and 1500 CE.

Recent African origin of modern humans. Bantu expansion. The Bantu expansion or Bantu colonisation was a millennia-long series of migrations of speakers of the original proto-Bantu language group.[1] [2] The primary evidence for this great expansion, one of the largest in human history, has been linguistic, namely that the languages spoken in Sub-Equatorial Africa are remarkably similar to each other, to the degree that it is unlikely that they began diverging from each other more than three thousand years ago. Early human migrations. Early human migrations began when Homo erectus first migrated out of Africa over the Levantine corridor and Horn of Africa to Eurasia about 1.8 million years ago.

Map-of-human-migrations.jpg (JPEG-bild, 889x635 pixlar) Cro-Magnon. Cro-Magnon ( i/kroʊˈmænjən/ or US pronunciation: /kroʊˈmæɡnən/; French: [kʁomaɲɔ̃]) is a name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) of the European Upper Paleolithic.[1] Current scientific literature prefers the term European Early Modern Humans (EEMH), to the term 'Cro-Magnon,' which has no formal taxonomic status, as it refers neither to a species or subspecies nor to an archaeological phase or culture.[1] The earliest known remains of Cro-Magnon-like humans are radiocarbon dated to 43,000 years before present.[2] The Cro-Magnon are the ancestors of modern Europeans.

Cro-Magnons were robustly built and powerful. The body was generally heavy and solid with a strong musculature. The forehead was fairly straight rather than sloping like in Neanderthals, and with only slight browridges. The face was short and wide. Recent African origin of modern humans. Genetic history of Europe. The genetic history of Europe is complicated because European populations have a complicated demographic and genetic history, including many successive periods of population growth. History of Europe. Ancient Greece. Roman Empire. Population genetics. Introduction to genetics.