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Popular culture is the entirety of ideas , perspectives , attitudes , memes , [ 1 ] images , and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture , especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century. Heavily influenced by mass media , this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of the society . Popular culture is often viewed as being trivial and dumbed-down in order to find consensual acceptance throughout the mainstream.
A knight is a person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a monarch or other political leader for service to the monarch or country, especially in a military capacity. Historically, in Europe, knighthood has been conferred upon mounted warriors. [ 1 ] During the High Middle Ages , knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility . By the Late Middle Ages , the rank had become associated with the ideals of chivalry , a code of conduct for the perfect courtly Christian warrior .
Italian/French Propaganda Postcard from World War I era showing a caricature of Kaiser Wilhelm II biting into the world Poster for Thirteenth Naval District, United States Navy, showing a rat representing Japan , approaching a mousetrap labeled "Army, Navy, Civilian", on a background map of the Alaska Territory Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed towards influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position by presenting only one side of an argument.
A meme ( pron.: / ˈ m iː m / ; meem ) [ 1 ] is a term employed in certain theories of culture to refer to "an idea, behavior or style that spreads from person to person within a culture." [ 2 ] A meme acts as a unit for carrying cultural ideas, symbols or practices, which can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals or other imitable phenomena. Supporters of the concept regard memes as cultural analogues to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate and respond to selective pressures . [ 3 ] The word meme is a shortening (modeled on gene ) of mimeme (from Ancient Greek μίμημα Greek pronunciation: [míːmɛːma] mīmēma , "imitated thing", from μιμεῖσθαι mimeisthai , "to imitate", from μῖμος mimos "mime") [ 4 ] and it was coined by the British evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins in The Selfish Gene (1976) [ 1 ] [ 5 ] as a concept for discussion of evolutionary principles in explaining the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena.
The Internal Revenue Service ( IRS ) is the revenue service of the United States federal government . The agency is a bureau of the Department of the Treasury , and is under the immediate direction of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue . The IRS is responsible for collecting taxes and the interpretation and enforcement of the Internal Revenue Code . The first income tax was assessed in 1862 to raise funds for the American Civil War, with a rate of 3%. Today the IRS collects over $2.4 trillion each tax year from around 234 million tax returns.
Gentrification is a dynamic that emerges in poor urban areas when residential shifts, urban planning, and other phenomena affect the composition of a neighborhood. [ 1 ] Urban gentrification often involves population migration as poor residents of a neighborhood are displaced. In a community undergoing gentrification, the average income increases and average family size decreases. This generally results in the displacement of the poorer, pre-gentrification residents, who are unable to pay increased rents , and property taxes , or afford real estate .
Aristocracy ( Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía , from ἄριστος aristos "excellent," and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government in which a few elite citizens rule. [ 1 ] The term derives from the Greek aristokratia , meaning "rule of the best". [ 2 ] In origin in Ancient Greece , it was conceived of as rule by the best qualified citizens, and contrasted with monarchy . In later times, aristocracy was usually seen as rule by a privileged group (the aristocratic class ), and contrasted with democracy . [ 1 ]
An environmentalist broadly supports the goals of the environmental movement , "a political and ethical movement that seeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activities". [ 1 ] An environmentalist is engaged in or believes in the philosophy of environmentalism . Environmentalists are sometimes referred to using informal or derogatory terms such as "greenie" and "tree-hugger". [ 2 ] [ edit ] Notable environmentalists
Indigenous peoples are ethnic minorities who have been marginalized as their historical territories became part of a state. [ 1 ] In international or national legislation they are generally defined as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and to their cultural or historical distinctiveness from politically dominant populations. The concept of indigenous people may define them as particularly vulnerable to exploitation, marginalization and oppression by nations or states that may still be in the process of colonialism, or by politically dominant ethnic groups.
In current usage, the word " freak " is commonly used to refer to a person with something strikingly unusual about their appearance or behaviour .
Macaque monkey A monkey is a primate of the Haplorrhini suborder and simian infraorder, either an Old World monkey or a New World monkey , but excluding apes and humans. There are about 260 known living species of monkey. Many are arboreal, although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons . Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent .
Chimpanzee , sometimes colloquially chimp , is the common name for the two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan .
Dame Jane Morris Goodall , DBE (born Valerie Jane Morris-Goodall on 3 April 1934) [ 1 ] is a British primatologist , ethologist , anthropologist , and UN Messenger of Peace . [ 2 ] Considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees , Goodall is best known for her 45-year study of social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees in Gombe Stream National Park , Tanzania . [ 3 ] She is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute and has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare issues.
The Sociology of knowledge is the study of the relationship between human thought and the social context within which it arises, and of the effects prevailing ideas have on societies. It is not a specialized area of sociology but instead deals with broad fundamental questions about the extent and limits of social influences on individual's lives and the social-cultural basics of our knowledge about the world. [ 1 ] Complementary to the sociology of knowledge is the sociology of ignorance including the study of nescience, ignorance, knowledge gaps or non-knowledge as inherent features of knowledge making. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] The sociology of knowledge was pioneered primarily by the sociologists Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Their works deal directly with how conceptual thought, language, and logic could be influenced by the sociological milieu out of which they arise.