Engineering Leadership and Management Courses. Free Management Library (SM) Management Theories. The CEO Refresher Archives. 12manage - The Free Management Encyclopedia and Network. Clay Christensen's Milkshake Marketing. When planning new products, companies often start by segmenting their markets and positioning their merchandise accordingly.
This segmentation involves either dividing the market into product categories, such as function or price, or dividing the customer base into target demographics, such as age, gender, education, or income level. Unfortunately, neither way works very well, according to Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen, who notes that each year 30,000 new consumer products are launched—and 95 percent of them fail. “The jobs-to-be-done point of view causes you to crawl into the skin of your customer and go with her as she goes about her day, always asking the question as she does something: Why did she do it that way?” The problem is that consumers usually don't go about their shopping by conforming to particular segments. Rather, they take life as it comes. Seven Management and Planning Tools. The Seven Management and Planning Tools have their roots in Operations Research work done after World War II and the Japanese Total Quality Control (TQC) research.
In 1979 the book Seven New Quality Tools for Managers and Staff was published and was translated into English in 1983. The Seven Tools