Neurological professions and research fields
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Neurology (from Greek νεῦρον , neuron , "nerve" + the suffix -λογία , ' -logia ', "study of") is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system . To be specific, neurology deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system; or equivalently, the autonomic nervous systems and the somatic nervous systems , including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue, such as muscle. [ 1 ] A neurologist is a physician specializing in neurology and trained to investigate, or diagnose and treat neurological disorders. [ 2 ] Neurologists may also be involved in clinical research , and clinical trials , as well as basic research and translational research .
| year=2000 | volume=54 | issue=1 | pages=8–14 | pmid=10636118}} </ref> [ 1 ] Most of this work argues for a rapprochement of neurology and psychiatry, forming a specialty above and beyond a subspecialty of psychiatry.
Psychoneuroimmunology ( PNI ) is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body. [ 1 ] PNI takes an interdisciplinary approach, incorporating psychology , neuroscience , immunology , physiology , pharmacology , molecular biology , psychiatry , behavioral medicine , infectious diseases , endocrinology , and rheumatology . The main interests of PNI are the interactions between the nervous and immune systems and the relationships between mental processes and health . PNI studies, among other things, the physiological functioning of the neuroimmune system in health and disease; disorders of the neuroimmune system ( autoimmune diseases ; hypersensitivities ; immune deficiency ); and the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the neuroimmune system in vitro , in situ , and in vivo .
Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery ) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain , spinal cord , peripheral nerves , and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ edit ] Education and training