Sampling (statistics) The sampling process comprises several stages: Successful statistical practice is based on focused problem definition.
In sampling, this includes defining the population from which our sample is drawn. A population can be defined as including all people or items with the characteristic one wishes to understand. Because there is very rarely enough time or money to gather information from everyone or everything in a population, the goal becomes finding a representative sample (or subset) of that population. Sometimes what defines a population is obvious. Although the population of interest often consists of physical objects, sometimes we need to sample over time, space, or some combination of these dimensions.
In other cases, our 'population' may be even less tangible. This situation often arises when we seek knowledge about the cause system of which the observed population is an outcome. Cambridge Journals Online - Abstract - Vitamin status in different groups of the Spanish population: a meta-analysis of national studies performed between 1990 and 1999. ScienceDirect.com - Journal of Clinical Epidemiology - Development quality criteria to evaluate nontherapeutic studies of incidence, prevalence, or risk factors of chronic diseases: pilot study of new checklists.
Www.cochrane-handbook.org. Appendix B: Data Extraction and Quality Assessment Forms - Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults - NCBI Bookshelf. A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson's disease - Reijnders - 2007 - Movement Disorders - Wiley Online Library. Graphics.tx.ovid.com.ezproxy.webfeat.lib.ed.ac.uk/ovftpdfs/FPDDNCDCEDNNFJ00/fs046/ovft/live/gv025/00006250/00006250-200511000-00027.pdf.
WHO systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity: methodological issues and challenges. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity. The worldwide incidence of preterm birth: a systematic review of maternal mortality and morbidity Incidence mondiale de la naissance avant terme : revue systématique de la mortalité et de la morbidité maternelle Incidencia mundial de parto prematuro: revisión sistemática de la morbilidad y mortalidad maternas Stacy BeckI; Daniel WojdylaII; Lale SayIII,*; Ana Pilar BetranIII; Mario MerialdiIII; Jennifer Harris RequejoIV; Craig RubensV; Ramkumar MenonVI; Paul FA Van LookVII OBJECTIVE: To analyse preterm birth rates worldwide to assess the incidence of this public health problem, map the regional distribution of preterm births and gain insight into existing assessment strategies.
METHODS: Data on preterm birth rates worldwide were extracted during a previous systematic review of published and unpublished data on maternal mortality and morbidity reported between 1997 and 2002. Introduction No data have been published on the global incidence of preterm birth. Methods Search strategy. SysRev3. Systematic review of prevalence studies of autism spectrum disorders. Cited Ref Search_WoK5. PRISMA. STROBE Statement: Home. Www.strobe-statement.org/fileadmin/Strobe/uploads/checklists/STROBE_checklist_v4_cross-sectional.pdf. Www.sph.emory.edu/cms/departments_centers/gh/documents/reporting observational studies.pdf.
Critical Appraisal of the Health Research Literature: Prevalence or Incidence of a Health Problem. Critical Appraisal of Studies 1.
Study Design and Sampling Method: Are the study design and sampling method appropriate for the research question? A survey (observational study) is the appropriate study design to determine the prevalence of a particular health problem. If the whole population of interest is not surveyed, then the best sampling technique is random (probability) sampling of persons from a defined subset of the population.
Stratification (sampling purposely from subgroups) may be required to appropriately represent subgroups such as the very old. For larger surveys, cluster sampling is sometimes used. A study to determine the incidence of a disease must have a prospective or longitudinal design, and should include persons known not to have the disease, who are then observed over a suitable time period.1,3. SIGN 50: A guideline developer's handbook - Annex C: Notes on the use of Methodology Checklist 5: Diagnostic studies.
Systematic reviews are by definition summaries of results from a collection of other studies. Any attempt to summarise them further must be careful to ensure that all the issues addressed by the review are taken into account. In the case of meta analyses where a very limited number of comparisons or measures of effect are used, the results can be presented in an evidence table along with any single studies that have been identified as addressing the same question.
All the stages of the review process are thoroughly documented (see below). 6.1 Addressing patient issues in the literature search. Systematic Reviews in Health Care - Cambridge Books Online - Cambridge University Press. A Systematic Review of the Prevalence of Schizophrenia. Background Understanding the prevalence of schizophrenia has important implications for both health service planning and risk factor epidemiology.
The aims of this review are to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of schizophrenia, to summarize the findings of these studies, and to explore selected factors that may influence prevalence estimates. Methods and Findings Studies with original data related to the prevalence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2002) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. These studies were divided into “core” studies, “migrant” studies, and studies based on “other special groups.”