Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Introduction This leaflet is for anyone who wants to know more about ECT (Electro-convulsive therapy). It looks at how ECT works, why it is used, its effects and side-effects, and alternative treatments. Although a safe and effective treatment, ECT remains controversial and we have included some of the different views about it. Where there are areas of uncertainty, we have listed other sources of information that you can use. Important concerns are the effectiveness and side-effects of ECT and how it compares with other treatments.
At the time of writing, these references are available free and in full on the Internet. What is ECT? ECT is a treatment for a small number of severe mental illnesses. An electrical current is passed through the brain to produce an epileptic fit – hence the name, electro-convulsive. More recent research suggests that the effect is due to the fit rather than the electrical current.
Q How often is it used? It is now used less often. Q How does ECT work? Short-term Q. Psychoanalysis | Freudian Theory. By Saul McLeod published 2007, updated 2014 Psychoanalysis was founded by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining insight. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious. Psychoanalysis is commonly used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Psychoanalysis Assumptions Psychoanalytic psychologists see psychological problems as rooted in the unconscious mind.Manifest symptoms are caused by latent (hidden) disturbances.Typical causes include unresolved issues during development or repressed trauma.Treatment focuses on bringing the repressed conflict to consciousness, where the client can deal with it. How can we understand the unconscious mind? Remember, psychoanalysis is a therapy as well as a theory. 1) Rorschach ink blots The ink blot itself doesn't mean anything, it's ambiguous (i.e. unclear). 2) Freudian Slip.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Introduction This leaflet is for anyone who wants to know more about ECT (Electro-convulsive therapy). It looks at how ECT works, why it is used, its effects and side-effects, and alternative treatments. Although a safe and effective treatment, ECT remains controversial and we have included some of the different views about it. Where there are areas of uncertainty, we have listed other sources of information that you can use. What is ECT? ECT is a treatment for a small number of severe mental illnesses. An electrical current is passed through the brain to produce an epileptic fit – hence the name, electro-convulsive.
More recent research suggests that the effect is due to the fit rather than the electrical current. Q How often is it used? It is now used less often. Q How does ECT work? No-one is certain how ECT works. Recent research has also suggested that ECT can help the growth of new cells and nerve pathways in certain areas of the brain. Q Does ECT really work? Pros & Cons of ECT Short-term.
Health | 'Testosterone link' to depression. Older men with lower levels of the male sex hormone testosterone in their blood may be more prone to depression, a study suggests. A study of about 4,000 men aged over 70 found those with lowest testosterone were three times more likely to be depressed than those with the most. Researchers suspect the hormone may affect levels of key brain chemicals.
The study, by the University of Western Australia, features in Archives of General Psychiatry. Research has found that women are more likely to be depressed than men until the age of 65, when the difference between the genders almost disappears. Testosterone levels decline with age - but there is wide variation. The Australian team studied 3,987 men over the age of 70. In total 203 of the participants were assessed as being depressed. They had significantly lower levels of both total testosterone, and free testosterone, which is not bound to proteins.
The researchers said further work was required to confirm their findings. Raised death risk. Male depression 'set to increase' 1 March 2011Last updated at 11:57 Could the number of depressed men be about to rise? Psychiatrists have warned that the number of men with depression could rise because of changes in Western society. An article in the British Journal of Psychiatry suggests economic and social changes will erode traditional sources of male self-esteem. The authors say men will struggle with the shift away from traditional male and female roles. The Men's Health Forum said male identity was bound up in employment. One of the authors, Dr Boadie Dunlop from Emory University School of Medicine, said: "Women are almost twice as likely to develop major depressive disorder in their lifetime as men, but we believe this difference may well change in the coming decades. " He argues that traditional males jobs such as manufacturing or physical labour are being lost, either through improved technology or jobs moving to other countries.
Continue reading the main story “Start Quote Male identity. People living alone 'are more depressed' 22 March 2012Last updated at 22:06 ET Loneliness could be a factor in mental health problems, even in working-age people People of working age who live alone increase their risk of depression by up to 80% compared with people living in families, says a Finnish study. It says the main factors are poor housing conditions for women and a lack of social support for men, who are both equally affected. The study tracked the use of anti-depressants in 3,500 Finnish people. A mental health charity said people who lived alone must be given outlets to talk about their problems. The study authors highlight the fact that the proportion of one-person households in Western countries has increased during the past three decades, with one in every three people in the US and the UK living alone.
The participants in the study, published in BioMed Central's public health journal, were working-age Finns; 1,695 were men and 1,776 were women, and they had an average age of 44.6 years. Continue reading the main story. Why do some people never get depressed? 30 January 2012Last updated at 12:23 By Geoff Watts BBC World Service Confronted with some of life's upsetting experiences - marriage breakdown, unemployment, bereavement, failure of any kind - many people become depressed. But others don't. Why is this? A person who goes through experiences like that and does not get depressed has a measure of what in the psychiatric trade is known as "resilience". According to Manchester University psychologist Dr Rebecca Elliott, we are all situated somewhere on a sliding scale. "At one end you have people who are very vulnerable.
"At the other end, you have people who life has dealt a quite appalling hand with all sorts of stressful experiences, and yet they remain positive and optimistic. " Continue reading the main story A measure of resilience Aeron, a subject in the Manchester study: I used to have a business that we ended up having to close. I'm generally a happy person. I think that if there's a problem there's always a remedy. Emotional memory. Depression - Treatment. Antidepressants are medicines that treat the symptoms of depression. There are almost 30 different kinds available. Most people with moderate or severe depression benefit from antidepressants, but not everybody does.
You may respond to one antidepressant, but not to another, and you may need to try two or more treatments before you find one that works for you. The different types of antidepressant work about as well as each other. However, side effects vary between different treatments and people. When you start taking antidepressants you should see your GP or specialist nurse every week or two for at least four weeks to see how well they are working. If you've had bouts of depression in the past, you may need to continue to take antidepressants for up to five years or longer. Antidepressants aren't addictive, but be prepared to get some withdrawal symptoms if you stop taking them suddenly or you miss a dose.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) How Prozac works- brief animation. Withdrawing from Antidepressants Can be Dangerous. ECT.