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Oceans 2

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Url?sa=t&rct=j&q=ghost%20fishing&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CCcQFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Foceanservice.noaa.gov%2Ffacts%2Fghostfishing. Whaling. Whaling is the hunting of whales primarily for meat and oil.

Whaling

Its earliest forms date to at least 3000 BC.[1] Various coastal communities have long histories of subsistence whaling and harvesting beached whales. Industrial whaling emerged with organized fleets in the 17th century; competitive national whaling industries in the 18th and 19th centuries; and the introduction of factory ships along with the concept of whale harvesting in the first half of the 20th century. What is overfishing for children? Url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=12&ved=0CAwQFjABOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsaveourseas. Global Warming and its Effect on Marine Populations - An Overview of Global Warming in the Ocean. Global warming, an increase in the earth's average atmospheric temperature that causes corresponding changes in climate, is a growing environmental issue caused by the influx of human industry and agriculture in the mid-twentieth-century to the present.

Global Warming and its Effect on Marine Populations - An Overview of Global Warming in the Ocean

As greenhouse gases such as CO2 and methane are released into the atmosphere, a shield forms around our Earth, trapping heat inside of our planet and therefore creating a general warming effect. One of the most influenced territories of warming has been our oceans. Rising air temperatures affect the physical nature of our oceans. As air temperatures rise, water becomes less dense and separates from a nutrient-filled cold layer below. This is the basis for a chain effect that impacts all marine life who count on these nutrients for survival. There are two general physical effects of ocean warming on marine populations that are crucial to consider: Changes in natural habitats and food supply Changing ocean chemistry/acidification. Why is overfishing a global concern? The problem of Overfishing We all love to eat fish, don’t we?

Why is overfishing a global concern?

It is the best source of protein and very healthy food in many ways. We also know where fish comes from—our oceans. Many decades ago, our oceans were full of fishes but unfortunately, this is not the case today. Our world today faces many complex issues ranging from pollution, climate change, wars, food crises, waste, over-population… and of course over-fishing. Sea Temperature Rise. As climate change has warmed the Earth, oceans have responded more slowly than land environments.

Sea Temperature Rise

But scientific research is finding that marine ecosystems can be far more sensitive to even the most modest temperature change. Global warming caused by human activities that emit heat-trapping carbon dioxide has raised the average global temperature by about 1°F (0.6°C) over the past century. In the oceans, this change has only been about 0.18°F (0.1°C). This warming has occurred from the surface to a depth of about 2,300 feet (700 meters), where most marine life thrives. Perhaps the ocean organism most vulnerable to temperature change is coral.

Reef Check's Web Reef Advisory System (WRAS) Fishing. Plastic Pollution in our Oceans. Environmental Issues > Oceans Main Page > All Oceans Documents The Basics We're treating the oceans like a trash bin: around 80 percent of marine litter originates on land, and most of that is plastic.

Plastic Pollution in our Oceans

Plastic that pollutes our oceans and waterways has severe impacts on our environment and our economy. Seabirds, whales, sea turtles and other marine life are eating marine plastic pollution and dying from choking, intestinal blockage and starvation. Whaling in Japan. Japan continues to kill whales and sell the meat from its hunts, despite the ban (moratorium) on commercial whaling.

Whaling in Japan

Sea Turtle Threats - Shell Trade. The Problem: Hawksbill sea turtles, recognized for their beautiful gold and brown shells, have been hunted for centuries to create jewelry and other luxury items.

Sea Turtle Threats - Shell Trade

As a result, these turtles are now listed as critically endangered. They are especially threatened in the Indian and Pacific oceans and along the Caribbean Coast. According to recent studies, scientists estimate that hawksbill populations have declined by 90 percent during the past 100 years. To improve their survival outlook, an international agreement signed by 173 governments, known as CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), declared the trade of these shells illegal.

However, the demand for shells continues today on the black market, especially in Japan. Species Affected: Hawksbill sea turtles are overwhelmingly affected by this issue. What is a kelp forest? Kelp forests can be seen along much of the west coast of North America.

What is a kelp forest?

Kelp are large brown algae that live in cool, relatively shallow waters close to the shore. They grow in dense groupings much like a forest on land. These underwater towers of kelp provide food and shelter for thousands of fish, invertebrates, and marine mammal species. Kelp forests harbor a greater variety and higher diversity of plants and animals than almost any other ocean community. Many organisms use the thick blades as a safe shelter for their young from predators or even rough storms.

Among the many mammals and birds that use kelp forests for protection or feeding include seals, sea lions, whales, sea otters, gulls, terns, snowy egrets, great blue herons, cormorants, and shore birds. These dense canopies of algae generally occur in cold, nutrient-rich waters. Environmental Threats. Endangered Oceans: Why we should care. Overfishing. Ocean overfishing is simply the taking of wildlife from the sea at rates too high for fished species to replace themselves.

Overfishing

The earliest overfishing occurred in the early 1800s when humans, seeking blubber for lamp oil, decimated the whale population. Some fish that we eat, including Atlantic cod and herring and California's sardines, were also harvested to the brink of extinction by the mid-1900s. Highly disruptive to the food chain, these isolated, regional depletions became global and catastrophic by the late 20th century. When It Started Marine scientists know when widespread overfishing of the seas began. In the mid-20th century, international efforts to increase the availability and affordability of protein-rich foods led to concerted government efforts to increase fishing capacity.