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HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF FAILING SEPTIC SYSTEMS. Did you know that worldwide, 80% of all infectious diseases may be water related? Did you know that diarrheal diseases traced to contaminated water kill approximately 2 million children and cause about 90 million episodes of illness worldwide each year? This information sheet illustrates the health hazardous failing septic systems pose to your community and offers some tips on preventing this problem. What Diseases Are Commonly Caused by Wastewater? Septic tank systems are the largest of all contributors of wastewater to the ground and are the most frequently reported sources of groundwater contamination in the United States. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites (including worms and protozoans) are the types of pathogens in wastewater that are hazardous to humans. Bacteria are microscopic organisms that are responsible for several wastewater related diseases, including typhoid, paratyphoid, bacillary dysentery, gastroenteritis, and cholera.

How Can I Prevent These Diseases? 9850-D Emmett F. Estimating the burden of acute gastroenteritis, foodborne disease, and pathogens commonly transmitted by food. Formaldehyde and Cancer Risk. Since the 1980s, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has conducted studies to determine whether there is an association between occupational exposure to formaldehyde and an increase in the risk of cancer. The results of this research have provided EPA and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) with information to evaluate the potential health effects of workplace exposure to formaldehyde. The long-term effects of formaldehyde exposure have been evaluated in epidemiologic studies (studies that attempt to uncover the patterns and causes of disease in groups of people). One type of epidemiologic study is called a cohort study. A cohort is a group of people who may vary in their exposure to a particular factor, such as formaldehyde, and are followed over time to see whether they develop a disease.

Another kind of epidemiologic study is called a case-control study. Formaldehyfe. Outdoor Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Infections Among... : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Ground-level ozone (O3) - Air quality fact sheet. Air quality fact sheetDepartment of the Environment and Heritage, 2005 In the context of air quality, the concern with ozone is the high levels that can occur at ground level. This issue is different from depletion of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Information about the ozone layer can be found at: What are photochemical oxidants and ozone? 'Photochemical oxidants' is the technical term for the type of smog found in Australian cities during the warmer months of the year. This type of smog can be invisible or it can appear as a whitish haze.

Photochemical oxidants are formed when sunlight falls on a mixture of chemicals in the air. Ozone is a gas that is formed when nitrogen oxides react with a group of air pollutants known as 'reactive organic substances' in the presence of sunlight. How does ozone affect human health? Ozone can irritate the lining of the nose, airways and lungs. How much of a problem is ozone in Australia? 4613.0 - Australia's Environment: Issues and Trends, Jan 2010. This document was added 02/05/2010. Note: “Days of exceedence” refers to the number of days in which average PM10 concentrations exceeded the NEPM standard. Each city contains several PM10 monitoring stations. The data presented are an average of exceedence days across each PM10 monitoring station in each city. Melbourne averages only consider stations with data available for at least 75% of days in a given year.Source: New South Wales Department of Environment, Climate Change and Water; Queensland Department of Environment and Resource Management; Victoria Environment Protection Authority.

Airborne particles may be solid matter (such as dust, dirt or soot) or liquid droplets. These particles result from both natural and human sources. Particle pollution reduces visibility on roads, which can cause a safety issue. Not all airborne particles are large enough to be seen by the human eye. The chemicals that react to form ozone are nitrogen oxides and reactive organic substances. 1. Causes and Effects of Soil Pollution. With the rise of concrete buildings and roads, one part of the Earth that we rarely see is the soil. It has many different names, such as dirt, mud and ground. However, it is definitely very important to us. The plants that feed us grow in soil and keeping it healthy is essential to maintaining a beautiful planet.

However, like all other forms of nature, soil also suffers from pollution. The pollution of soil is a common thing these days, and it happens due to the presence of man made elements. The main reason why the soil becomes contaminated is due to the presence of man made waste. Main Causes of Soil Pollution 1. 2. 3. While much of it moves into the sewer the system, there is also a large amount that is dumped directly into landfills in the form of diapers. 4. 5. Effects of Soil Pollution 1.

Long term exposure to such soil can affect the genetic make-up of the body, causing congenital illnesses and chronic health problems that cannot be cured easily. 2. 3. 4. 5. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Acetaldehyde. Respirator Recommendations At concentrations above the NIOSH REL, or where there is no REL, at any detectable concentration: (APF = 10,000) Any self-contained breathing apparatus that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode(APF = 10,000) Any supplied-air respirator that has a full facepiece and is operated in a pressure-demand or other positive-pressure mode in combination with an auxiliary self-contained positive-pressure breathing apparatus Escape: (APF = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator (gas mask) with a chin-style, front- or back-mounted organic vapor canisterAny appropriate escape-type, self-contained breathing apparatus Important additional information about respirator selection.

DANGERS1.pdf. 4 Pit, bucket and chemical toilets. 4.1 Pit toilets Any toilet in which the faeces and urine go directly into a hole in the ground is called a pit toilet. Pit toilets are also called latrines, drop-hole toilets and bore-hole toilets. Toilets of this type are still in use in Australia, particularly in remote areas where water is in short supply. These toilets are always located away from the main dwelling and should always be located away from community water sources to prevent contamination of the water supply. To give privacy they are usually inside a properly constructed building.

There are different kinds of pit toilet. Dry drop-hole toilets This type of toilet is a hole in the ground which is only a few feet deep. Fig. 2.2: Dry drop-hole toilet with roughly constructed seat and walls. As the hole fills with sewage, bacteria will break down some of the materials into effluent. Drop-holes can fill up quickly if a lot of people are using them. Top of Page Bore-hole latrines VIP latrines Fig. 2.5: A VIP latrine. 9 The septic tank. A septic tank can be used to treat the sewage from individual buildings at the building itself or for the whole community, at the lagoon. The sewage will pass through sewer pipes to the septic tank either at the house or at the lagoon.

The septic tank is a sealed round or rectangular container which is used to break down the sewage so that it becomes effluent through the action of bacteria living on the waste matter. 9.1 Septic tank design A household septic tank usually consists of two round concrete tanks with lids placed close to each other. Fig. 2.34: A round septic tank system. A septic tank can also be a single rectangular concrete tank with a dividing wall in it. Fig. 2.35: A rectangular septic tank system. Septic tanks are always divided into two sections, the first being twice the size of the second. Round septic tanks have concrete bottoms and lids. There are many regulations (rules) which require septic tanks to be constructed, positioned and installed in a particular way.