Black Holes. The fact that light is bent by a gravitational field brings up the following thought experiment.
Imagine adding mass to a body. As the mass increases, so does the gravitational pull and objects require more energy to reach escape velocity. Laws of technical systems evolution. The laws of technical systems evolution are the most general evolution trends for technical systems discovered by TRIZ author G.
S. Altshuller after reviewing thousands USSR invention authorship certificates and foreign patent abstracts. History Pythagorean astronomical system. An astronomical system positing that the Earth, Moon, Sun and planets revolve around an unseen "Central Fire" was developed in the 5th century BC and has been attributed to the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus, a version based on Stobaeus account, who betrays a tendency to confound the dogmas of the early Ionian philosophers, and he occasionally mixes up Platonism with Pythagoreanism. Brewer (1894, page 2293) mentioned Pythagoras taught that the sun is a movable sphere in the centre of the universe, and that all the planets revolve round it. Philolaus believed there was a "Counter-Earth" (Antichthon) orbiting the "Central Fire" and that neither were visible from Earth.
The upper illustration depicts Earth at night while the lower one depicts Earth in the day. Philolaus LIQUi|> Physics. Strange quantum phenomenon achieved at room temperature in semiconductor wafers. Entanglement is one of the strangest phenomena predicted by quantum mechanics, the theory that underlies most of modern physics.
It says that two particles can be so inextricably connected that the state of one particle can instantly influence the state of the other, no matter how far apart they are. Just one century ago, entanglement was at the center of intense theoretical debate, leaving scientists like Albert Einstein baffled. Today, however, entanglement is accepted as a fact of nature and is actively being explored as a resource for future technologies including quantum computers, quantum communication networks, and high-precision quantum sensors. My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla. Resources Menu | Coffee | Library | Gallery | Lucidcafé Home | Revised: October 27, 2015 My Inventions The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla Introduction Nikola Tesla was born in Croatia (then part of Austria-Hungary) on July 9, 1856, and died January 7, 1943.
Physics. Newton's Laws - Force & Motion. First law of thermodynamics. Transverse wave. A light wave is an example of a transverse wave.
Propagation of a transverse spherical wave in a 2d grid (empirical model) A transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (or right angled) to the direction of energy transfer. If a transverse wave is moving in the positive x-direction, its oscillations are in up and down directions that lie in the y–z plane. Correspondence principle. Photon polarization. Photon polarization is the quantum mechanical description of the classical polarized sinusoidal plane electromagnetic wave.
Individual photon eigenstates have either right or left circular polarization. A photon that is in a superposition of eigenstates can have linear, circular, or elliptical polarization. Circular polarization. The electric field vectors of a traveling circularly polarized electromagnetic wave.
Elliptical polarization. Other forms of polarization, such as circular and linear polarization, can be considered to be special cases of elliptical polarization.
Mathematical description of elliptical polarization The classical sinusoidal plane wave solution of the electromagnetic wave equation for the electric and magnetic fields is (cgs units) for the magnetic field, where k is the wavenumber, is the angular frequency of the wave propagating in the +z direction, and. Local hidden variable theory. The term "hidden variable theory" is used in the interpretation of quantum mechanics.
It refers to all types of the theory that attempt to account for the probabilistic features of quantum mechanics by the mechanism of underlying inaccessible variables. A local hidden variable theory has the added requirement of being consistent with local realism, requiring that distant events be independent, ruling out instantaneous (i.e. faster-than-light) interactions between separate events. The mathematical implications of a local hidden variable theory in regard to the phenomenon of quantum entanglement were explored by physicist John S Bell.
Bell's 1964 paper (see Bell's theorem) showed that local hidden variables cannot reproduce the quantum measurement correlations that quantum mechanics predicts. Hidden variable theory. Albert Einstein, the most famous proponent of hidden variables, objected to the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics, and famously declared "I am convinced God does not play dice". Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen argued that "elements of reality" (hidden variables) must be added to quantum mechanics to explain entanglement without action at a distance. Later, Bell's theorem would suggest that local hidden variables of certain types are impossible, or that they evolve non-locally.
A famous non-local theory is De Broglie–Bohm theory. Motivation Implicate and explicate order. Implicate order and explicate order are ontological concepts for quantum theory coined by theoretical physicist David Bohm during the early 1980s. They are used to describe two different frameworks for understanding the same phenomenon or aspect of reality. In particular, the concepts were developed in order to explain the bizarre behavior of subatomic particles – behavior difficult to explain by quantum physics.
In his book Wholeness and the Implicate Order, Bohm uses these notions to describe how the same phenomenon might look different, or might be characterized by different principal factors, in different contexts such as at different scales. The implicate order, also referred to as the "enfolded" order, is seen as a deeper and more fundamental order of reality. 350 Fahrenheit to Celsius conversion. Physics. Quantum physics. What Einstein Got Wrong About the Speed of Light. If you want to play in the quantum sandbox, you have to accept some bizarre rules. You have to accept that a single thing can exist in two states at once—alive and dead, black and white—until it’s observed or measured in some way, at which point it instantly takes on one quality or the other.
Physics Lecture:- Quantum Mechanics-I :- Interpretations. Newton's Laws - Force & Motion. Partial Molar Volume. Partial molar property. Definition Water and ethanol always have negative excess volumes when mixed, indicating the partial molar volume of each component is less when mixed than its molar volume when pure. Boltzmann distribution.
Occupation probability following a Boltzmann distribution depending on the energy difference and temperature. where is state energy (which varies from state to state), and. Boltzmann's entropy formula. Boltzmann's equation—carved on his gravestone. where kB is the Boltzmann's constant, (also written with k) which is equal to 1.38065 × 10−23 J/K. Exploring quantum theories of consciousness. Earth - Watch this video to understand the biggest idea in physics. Peierls bracket. The bracket. Quantization (physics) The first method to be developed for quantization of field theories was canonical quantization. While this is extremely easy to implement on sufficiently simple theories, there are many situations where other methods of quantization yield more efficient procedures for computing quantum amplitudes.