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"Edge city" is an American term for a concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district ) in what had previously been a residential or rural area. The term was popularized in the 1991 book Edge City: Life on the New Frontier by Joel Garreau , who established its current meaning while working as a reporter for the Washington Post . Garreau argues that the edge city has become the standard form of urban growth worldwide, representing a 20th-century urban form unlike that of the 19th-century central downtown .
A sustainable city , or eco-city is a city designed with consideration of environmental impact , inhabited by people dedicated to minimization of required inputs of energy, water and food, and waste output of heat, air pollution - CO 2 , methane , and water pollution. Richard Register first coined the term "ecocity" in his 1987 book, Ecocity Berkeley: Building Cities for a Healthy Future . [ 1 ] Other leading figures who envisioned the sustainable city are architect Paul F Downton , who later founded the company Ecopolis Pty Ltd, and authors Timothy Beatley and Steffen Lehmann , [ 2 ] who have written extensively on the subject.
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The Death and Life of Great American Cities is a 1961 book by writer and activist Jane Jacobs . The book is a critique of 20th century urban planning policy, which it says was responsible for the decline of many city neighborhoods in the United States. [ 1 ] Going against the common wisdom of the age, deemed a combination of the Radiant City , Garden city , and City Beautiful movements, it proposes new ideas that it says would ensure organic vibrancy in urban America. [ edit ] Contents