Epistemology ( i / ɨ ˌ p ɪ s t ɨ ˈ m ɒ l ə dʒ i / from Greek ἐπιστήμη - epistēmē , meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος - logos , meaning "study of") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It questions what knowledge is, how it is acquired, and the possible extent to which a given subject or entity can be known. Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth , belief , and justification . The term was introduced by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier (1808–1864). [ 3 ] The field is sometimes referred to as the theory of knowledge .
Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality. Ontology (from onto- , from the Greek ὤν , ὄντος "being; that which is", present participle of the verb εἰμί , eimi "be", and -λογία , -logia : "science, study, theory") is the philosophical study of the nature of being , becoming , existence , or reality , as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics , ontology deals with questions concerning what entities exist or can be said to exist, and how such entities can be grouped, related within a hierarchy , and subdivided according to similarities and differences. [ citation needed ] [ edit ] Overview Ontology, in analytic philosophy , concerns the determination whether some categories of being are fundamental and asks in what sense the items in those categories can be said to "be."
In literary criticism , a Bildungsroman ( German pronunciation: [ˈbɪldʊŋs.ʁoˌmaːn] ; German : "formation novel" ) [ 1 ] or novel of formation , also coming-of-age story is a literary genre that focuses on the psychological and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood ( coming of age ), [ 2 ] and in which character change is thus extremely important. [ 3 ] [ edit ] History The term was coined in 1819 by philologist Karl Morgenstern in his university lectures, and later famously reprised by Wilhelm Dilthey , who legitimized it in 1870 and popularized it in 1905. [ 1 ] [ 4 ] The genre is further characterized by a number of formal, topical, and thematic features. [ 5 ] The term coming-of-age novel is sometimes used interchangeably with Bildungsroman , but its use is usually wider and less technical.