The Vienna Circle and Logical Positivism. Social philosophy. Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations. Social philosophers place new emphasis on understanding the social contexts for political, legal, moral, and cultural questions, and to the development of novel theoretical frameworks, from social ontology to care ethics to cosmopolitan theories of democracy, human rights, gender equity and global justice.
Epistemology. Epistemology ( i/ɨˌpɪstɨˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and λόγος, logos, meaning "study of") is a term first used by the Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier to describe the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge and is also referred to as "theory of knowledge".
Put concisely, it is the study of knowledge and justified belief. It questions what knowledge is and how it can be acquired, and the extent to which knowledge pertinent to any given subject or entity can be acquired. Much of the debate in this field has focused on the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification. The term was probably first introduced in Ferrier's Institutes of Metaphysic: The Theory of Knowing and Being (1854), p. 46. Continental philosophy. It is difficult to identify non-trivial claims that would be common to all the preceding philosophical movements.
The term "continental philosophy", like "analytic philosophy", lacks clear definition and may mark merely a family resemblance across disparate philosophical views. Simon Glendinning has suggested that the term was originally more pejorative than descriptive, functioning as a label for types of western philosophy rejected or disliked by analytic philosophers. Babette Babich emphasizes the political basis of the distinction, still an issue when it comes to appointments and book contracts. Nonetheless, Michael E.
Rosen has ventured to identify common themes that typically characterize continental philosophy. First, continental philosophers generally reject scientism, the view that the natural sciences are the only or most accurate way of understanding phenomena. Hegelianism. Hegelianism is the philosophy of G.
W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. His goal was to reduce reality to a more synthetic unity within the system of transcendental idealism. Method Hegel's method in philosophy consists of the triadic development (Entwicklung) in each concept and each thing. Next, we find that the savage has given up this freedom in exchange for its opposite, the restraint, or, as he considers it, the tyranny, of civilization and law. In this triadic process, the second stage is the direct opposite, the annihilation, or at least the sublation, of the first. In itself (An-sich)out of itself (Anderssein)in and for itself (An-und-für-sich). Doctrine of development In logic – which, according to Hegel, is really metaphysic – we have to deal with the process of development applied to reality in its most abstract form. Influence
Philosophy of education. The Philosophy of education examines the aims, forms, methods, and results of acquiring knowledge as both a process and a field of study. As a field of applied philosophy, it is influenced both by developments within philosophy proper, especially questions of ethics and epistemology, and by concerns arising from instructional practice. Philosophical treatments of education date at least as far back as Socrates, but the field of inquiry only began to be recognized as a formal subdiscipline in the nineteenth century. As an academic subject, it is often taught within a department or college of education, rather than within a philosophy department. Though the field often seems to lack the cohesion of other areas of philosophy, it is generally, and perhaps therefore, more open to new approaches. Educational philosophies Movements Classical education Humanistic education