The Vienna Circle and Logical Positivism. Social philosophy. Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations. Social philosophers place new emphasis on understanding the social contexts for political, legal, moral, and cultural questions, and to the development of novel theoretical frameworks, from social ontology to care ethics to cosmopolitan theories of democracy, human rights, gender equity and global justice. Subdisciplines Social philosophy, ethics, and political philosophy all share intimate connections with other disciplines in the social sciences.
Epistemology. Epistemology ( i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning "knowledge", and λόγος, logos, meaning "word") is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology studies the nature of knowledge, the rationality of belief, and justification.
Much of the debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification, (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. The term 'Epistemology' was first used by Scottish philosopher James Frederick Ferrier in 1854. [a] However, according to Warren, King James VI of Scotland had previously personified this philosophical concept as the character Epistemon in 1591. Epistemon Etymology
Continental philosophy. It is difficult to identify non-trivial claims that would be common to all the preceding philosophical movements.
The term "continental philosophy", like "analytic philosophy", lacks clear definition and may mark merely a family resemblance across disparate philosophical views. Simon Glendinning has suggested that the term was originally more pejorative than descriptive, functioning as a label for types of western philosophy rejected or disliked by analytic philosophers. Babette Babich emphasizes the political basis of the distinction, still an issue when it comes to appointments and book contracts. Nonetheless, Michael E. Rosen has ventured to identify common themes that typically characterize continental philosophy. Hegelianism. Hegelianism is the philosophy of G.
W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. His goal was to reduce reality to a more synthetic unity within the system of transcendental idealism. Method Hegel's method in philosophy consists of the triadic development (Entwicklung) in each concept and each thing. Next, we find that the savage has given up this freedom in exchange for its opposite, the restraint, or, as he considers it, the tyranny, of civilization and law. In this triadic process, the second stage is the direct opposite, the annihilation, or at least the sublation, of the first. In itself (An-sich)out of itself (Anderssein)in and for itself (An-und-für-sich). Doctrine of development In logic – which, according to Hegel, is really metaphysic – we have to deal with the process of development applied to reality in its most abstract form.
Influence Philosophy of education. The Philosophy of education examines the aims, forms, methods, and results of acquiring knowledge as both a process and a field of study. As a field of applied philosophy, it is influenced both by developments within philosophy proper, especially questions of ethics and epistemology, and by concerns arising from instructional practice. Philosophical treatments of education date at least as far back as Socrates, but the field of inquiry only began to be recognized as a formal subdiscipline in the nineteenth century. As an academic subject, it is often taught within a department or college of education, rather than within a philosophy department. Though the field often seems to lack the cohesion of other areas of philosophy, it is generally, and perhaps therefore, more open to new approaches. Educational philosophies