Inside the sarcophagus | The Chernobyl Gallery. The sarcophagus that currently encases Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant is a giant metal concrete and structure quickly constructed as an emergency measure in 1986 to halt the release of radiation into the atmosphere following the explosion. The official Russian name is “Obyekt Ukrytiye” which means shelter or covering. It is estimated that within the shelter there is 200 tons of radioactive corium, 30 tons of contaminated dust and 16 tons of uranium and plutonium (source Wikipedia). In 1996 it was considered impossible to repair the sarcophagus as radiation levels within it were as high as 10,000 röntgens per hour (background radiation in cities is around 20-50 microröntgens per hour, a lethal dose being 500 röntgens over 5 hours). A decision to replace the sarcophagus with a “New Safe Containment” was taken and construction of the new structure is now well underway.
Cross section of the sarcophagus over reactor 4 Reactor 4 following the explosion Inside the sarcophagus. Chernobyl: Capping a Catastrophe. The Chernobyl accident can be likened to a huge dirty bomb, an explosion that spewed radioactive material in all directions. The blast was followed by a fire that sent even more contaminants into the atmosphere that were then carried by winds across the region and into Western Europe. In this way the disaster differs from nuclear power’s two other major accidents, at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania in 1979 and Fukushima in 2011.
At both of those plants, reactor cores melted down, but the core material — the nuclear fuel — remained within protective containment structures. The four reactors at the Chernobyl plant had no such containment. But that was only one aspect of their flawed design. The system for controlling the nuclear fission reaction was temperamental, and under certain conditions reactor power could quickly soar out of control. Officially, several dozen people were killed, and many others became sick.
Inside the Reactor That was nearly three decades ago. Who holds the world's nuclear warheads? Get the full list by country | News. The news that North Korea has successfully launched a satellite heightened fears that the same know-how could be used to launch ballistic missiles. Which countries already have the capability to launch a nuclear missile, and how many warheads do they have? Data on the number of nuclear weapons is notoriously difficult to find - not least because commitments on disarmament and dismantlement are linked to the number of weapons each state has claimed to have.
Among the few reliable statistical sources is the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. Established in 1945 by experts who had created the atomic bomb as part of the Manhattan Project and wanted to warn the public about its dangers, the Bulletin now publishes regular reports on the status of the world nuclear industry. Their latest report shows that Russia and the United States remain far ahead of the rest of the P5 (the five permanent members of the UN Security Council: the US, Russia, China, France and the UK).
Where's the older version? Still hosted with us - Just click here to see it Copy and paste the following to mashup the Ground Zero II script into your own website or blog: A ZIP archive with the source code can be found here. Science Caveat The damage caused by a nuclear explosion is affected by a multitude of variables, and some of these require powerful super-computers to be simulated properly. Project: 200903A. WW2 People's War - Timeline. Destructive Effects. Counting the Dead Chaotic conditions made accurate accounts most difficult. Some victims were vaporized instantly, many survivors were horribly disfigured, and death from radiation was uncertain—it might not claim its victims for days, weeks, months, or even years.
The initial death count in Hiroshima, set at 42,000–93,000, was based solely on the disposal of bodies, and was thus much too low. Later surveys covered body counts, missing persons, and neighborhood surveys during the first months after the bombing, yielding a more reliable estimate of 130,000 dead as of November 1945. A similar survey by officials in Nagasaki set its death toll at 60,000–70,000.
Additional counts indicated high levels of short-term mortality in both cities: —Over 90% of persons within 500 meters (1,600 ft.) of ground zero in both cities died. Most persons close to ground zero who received high radiation dosages died immediately or during the first day. *Figure 11. *Figure 12. Injury Phases 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ground Zero | Carloslabs. Have you ever wondered what would happen if a nuclear bomb goes off in your city?
The Radiation Effects Research Foundation Website. Barefoot Gen, HIroshima Destroyed. Nuclear weapons: Who has what? Governor: 6 tanks leaking radioactive waste at Washington nuclear site. The Hanford site in southeast Washington state once played a major part in U.S. plutonium production. Last week, Washington's governor said 1 tank at the Hanford nuclear site was leakingHe now says 6 tanks are leaking radioactive waste, calling the news "disturbing"The leaks pose "no immediate health risks," but do pose concerns, the governor saysHanford site is home to one of the world's largest nuclear cleanup efforts (CNN) -- Six tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in southeast Washington state are leaking radioactive waste, the governor said Friday, calling the news "disturbing" even as he insisted there are "no immediate health risks.
" "News of six leaking tanks at Hanford raises serious questions about integrity of all single tanks," Gov. Jay Inslee said Friday afternoon on Twitter. Inslee said that he got the latest information about the site during a meeting in Washington with U.S. On Friday, Inslee said there is "still no current health risk" tied to the leaks. The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki : Chapter 10 - Total Casualties There has been great difficulty in estimating the total casualties in the Japanese cities as a result of the atomic bombing.
The extensive destruction of civil installations (hospitals, fire and police department, and government agencies) the state of utter confusion immediately following the explosion, as well as the uncertainty regarding the actual population before the bombing, contribute to the difficulty of making estimates of casualties. The Japanese periodic censuses are not complete. Finally, the great fires that raged in each city totally consumed many bodies. The number of total casualties has been estimated at various times since the bombings with wide discrepancies. The relation of total casualties to distance from X, the center of damage and point directly under the air-burst explosion of the bomb, is of great importance in evaluating the casualty-producing effect of the bombs.
The Battle of Chernobyl - Free Documentary. Best Chernobyl Documentary 2006 The Battle of Chernobyl (HQ) 1hr 32min 1 clip. 12 nuclear tourism destinations: Not your typical vacation. Interested in uplifting stories on the natural world, sustainable communities, simple food, and new thinking on how to live well? Please enter a valid email address and try again! No thanks. Japan: Was the Fukushima Meltdown All That Dangerous? The headlines were extraordinary: “Japan Weighed Evacuating Tokyo in Nuclear Crisis,” the New York Times wrote a few days ago.
“Tokyo Evacuation ‘Was Considered’,” said the Sydney Morning Herald. “Japan Urged Calm While It Mulled Tokyo Evacuation,” wrote … hey, TIME magazine. The stories detailed the Rebuild Japan report, a deep and independent investigation of the events surrounding the Fukushima nuclear meltdown that occurred nearly a year ago. And the takeaway was alarming: at one point Japanese officials feared that radiation levels at the stricken plant would become so high that workers would be forced to abandon the facility — and that in turn could create a chain reaction that would force other Japanese nuclear plants to be abandoned as radiation spread. The report quotes then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano as saying that “it was only logical to conclude that we would also lose Tokyo itself.” (MORE: Japan, One Year Later) There are some dissenting voices. Nuclear Weapons: A Visual Timeline.