A NoSQL database provides a simple, lightweight mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that can under certain conditions provide higher scalability and availability than traditional relational databases . The NoSQL data stores use looser consistency models in order to achieve horizontal scaling and higher availability. Some authors refer to them as "Not only SQL" to emphasize that some NoSQL systems do allow SQL -like query language to be used. NoSQL database systems are often highly optimized for retrieval and appending operations and often offer little functionality beyond record storage (e.g. key–value stores).
The road to SQL started with Dr. E.F. Codd's paper, " A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks ", published in Communications of the ACM in June 1970. His colleagues at IBM, Donald Chamberlin and Raymond Boyce were working on a query language (originally named SQUARE, Specifying Queries As Relational Expressions) that culminated in the 1974 paper, " SEQUEL: A Structured English Query Language ".