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In C++, references provide many of the same capabilities as pointers. Although most C++ programmers seem to develop some intuition about when to use references instead of pointers, and vice versa, they still encounter situations where the choice isn't so clear. If you'd like to develop a reasonably consistent philosophy about using references, it really helps to know exactly how references differ from pointers.
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Next Previous Contents 18. Threads in C++ IBM pthread User Guide, Thread concepts, API reference http://www.as400.ibm.com/developer/threads/uguide/document.htm and mirror site is at IBM main site QpThread Library for C++ provides object oriented framework in C++ for threads and Unix signals on top of system level threads (currently POSIX Threads) http://lin.fsid.cvut.cz/~kra/index.html ThreadJack supports Java-like multi-thread programming model with platform independent C++ class library http://www.esm.co.jp/divisions/open-sys/ThreadJack/index-e.html and here is the download-site APE is the "APE Portable Environment" and class libraries for writing portable threaded servers in C++, under UNIX (pthread) and Win32 API's. APE provides portable class abstraction for threads, sockets, file handling, and synchronization objects.
Multitasking is one of the most difficult aspects of programming. It makes it even more important to provide a simple set of abstractions and to encapsulate it in a nice object-oriented shell. In the OO world, the natural counterpart of the thread (which is a strictly procedural abstraction) is the Active Object . An active object owns a captive thread that performs certain tasks asynchronously.