How To Become A Hacker. Copyright © 2001 Eric S.
Raymond As editor of the Jargon File and author of a few other well-known documents of similar nature, I often get email requests from enthusiastic network newbies asking (in effect) "how can I learn to be a wizardly hacker? ". Back in 1996 I noticed that there didn't seem to be any other FAQs or web documents that addressed this vital question, so I started this one. A lot of hackers now consider it definitive, and I suppose that means it is. Still, I don't claim to be the exclusive authority on this topic; if you don't like what you read here, write your own. If you are reading a snapshot of this document offline, the current version lives at Note: there is a list of Frequently Asked Questions at the end of this document.
Numerous translations of this document are available: ArabicBelorussianChinese, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, FrenchGerman, GreekItalianHebrew, Japanese, Lithuanian, Norwegian, PersianPortuguese (Brazilian), RomanianSpanish, Turkish, and Swedish. 1. How to be a Programmer: A Short, Comprehensive, and Personal Summary. Debugging is the cornerstone of being a programmer.
The first meaning of the verb to debug is to remove errors, but the meaning that really matters is to see into the execution of a program by examining it. A programmer that cannot debug effectively is blind. Idealists that think design, or analysis, or complexity theory, or whatnot, are more fundamental are not working programmers. The working programmer does not live in an ideal world. Even if you are perfect, your are surrounded by and must interact with code written by major software companies, organizations like GNU, and your colleagues. Debugging is about the running of programs, not programs themselves. To get visibility into the execution of a program you must be able to execute the code and observe something about it. The common ways of looking into the ‘innards’ of an executing program can be categorized as: Some beginners fear debugging when it requires modifying code.