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Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a mode of realization of symmetry breaking in a physical system, where the underlying laws are invariant under a symmetry transformation, but the system as a whole changes under such transformations, in contrast to explicit symmetry breaking .
In quantum mechanics and particle physics , spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles , composite particles ( hadrons ), and atomic nuclei . [ 1 ] [ 2 ] Spin is a solely quantum-mechanical phenomenon; it does not have a counterpart in classical mechanics (despite the term spin being reminiscent of classical phenomena such as a planet spinning on its axis). [ 2 ]
Self-organization is a process where some form of global order or coordination arises out of the local interactions between the components of an initially disordered system.
Magnetic leads here. For other uses of magnetic, see Magnetic (disambiguation)
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity , specific electrical resistance , or volume resistivity ) quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current . A low resistivity indicates a material that readily allows the movement of electric charge . Resistivity is commonly represented by the Greek letter ρ ( rho ).
In the physical sciences , a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system ), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform. [ 1 ] Examples of physical properties include density , index of refraction , magnetization and chemical composition.