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Emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence (EI) can be defined as the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior.[1] There are three models of EI.

Emotional intelligence

The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment.[2] The trait model as developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides, "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report" [3] The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI, focusing on EI being an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance, as proposed by Daniel Goleman.[4] Polymath. Leonardo da Vinci is regarded as a "Renaissance man" and is one of the most recognizable polymaths.


A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much")[1] is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the seventeenth century but the related term, polyhistor, is an ancient term with similar meaning. The term applies to the gifted people of the Renaissance who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of knowledge as well as in physical development, social accomplishments, and the arts, in contrast to the vast majority of people of that age who were not well educated.

This term entered the lexicon during the twentieth century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance. Gifted education. Gifted education (also known as Gifted and Talented Education (GATE), Talented and Gifted (TAG), or G/T) is a broad term for special practices, procedures, and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented.

Gifted education

There is no standard global definition of what a gifted student is. In 2011, the National Association for Gifted Children published a position paper that defined what a gifted student is. The term "gifted," in that position paper, describes individuals who demonstrate outstanding aptitude or competence in one or more domains. Multipotentiality. Multipotentiality is an educational and psychological term referring to the ability of a person, particularly one of intellectual or artistic curiosity, to excel in two or more different fields.[1] It can also refer to an individual whose interests span multiple fields or areas, rather than being strong in just one.


Such individuals are called "multipotentialites. " On the contrary, those whose interests lie mostly within a single field are called "specialists. " While the term multipotentialite can be used interchangeably with polymath or Renaissance Person, the terms are not identical. One need not be an expert in any particular field to be a multipotentialite. Other terms used to refer to multipotentialites are scanners, slashers,[2] and multipods, among others.

Leonardo da Vinci may be the best historical example of an acknowledged genius who struggled with the difficulties associated with multipotentiality. Theory of multiple intelligences. The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability.

Theory of multiple intelligences

This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner articulated seven criteria for a behavior to be considered an intelligence.[1] These were that the intelligences showed: potential for brain isolation by brain damage, place in evolutionary history, presence of core operations, susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), a distinct developmental progression, the existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, and support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings. Gardner argues intelligence is categorized into three primary or overarching categories, those of which are formulated by the abilities. Intelligence quotient. IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality,[2][3] parental social status,[4] and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ.

Intelligence quotient

While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates[5][6] and the mechanisms of inheritance.[7] History[edit] Early history[edit] The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardised test for rating a person's intelligence. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test in 1905, which focused on verbal abilities. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. General factor (g)[edit] Intellectual giftedness. Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average.

Intellectual giftedness

It is a characteristic of children, variously defined, that motivates differences in school programming. It is thought to persist as a trait into adult life, with various consequences studied in longitudinal studies of giftedness over the last century. There is no generally agreed definition of giftedness for either children or adults, but most school placement decisions and most longitudinal studies over the course of individual lives have been based on IQ in the top 2 percent of the population, that is above IQ 130. The various definitions of intellectual giftedness include either general high ability or specific abilities.

For example, by some definitions an intellectually gifted person may have a striking talent for mathematics without equally strong language skills. Genius. Latent inhibition. Theories[edit] The LI effect has received a number of theoretical interpretations.

Latent inhibition

One class of theory holds that inconsequential stimulus pre-exposure results in reduced associability for that stimulus.