Physics, Chemistry & Maths

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Chemistry. Forces, Elements, & the Periodic Table. Quantum Mechanics. Mathematics, Systems, Complexity & Chaos. Nanoscience. String Theory. Physicist suggests speed of light might be slower than thought. ( —Physicist James Franson of the University of Maryland has captured the attention of the physics community by posting an article to the peer-reviewed New Journal of Physics in which he claims to have found evidence that suggests the speed of light as described by the theory of general relativity, is actually slower than has been thought.

Physicist suggests speed of light might be slower than thought

The theory of general relativity suggests that light travels at a constant speed of 299,792,458 meters per second in a vacuum. It's the c in Einstein's famous equation after all, and virtually everything measured in the cosmos is based on it—in short, it's pretty important. But, what if it's wrong? Franson's arguments are based on observations made of the supernova SN 1987A–it exploded in February 1987.

Measurements here on Earth picked up the arrival of both photons and neutrinos from the blast but there was a problem—the arrival of the photons was later than expected, by 4.7 hours. Explore further: Does light experience time? God is on the ropes: The brilliant new science that has creationists and the Christian right terrified. The Christian right’s obsessive hatred of Darwin is a wonder to behold, but it could someday be rivaled by the hatred of someone you’ve probably never even heard of.

God is on the ropes: The brilliant new science that has creationists and the Christian right terrified

Darwin earned their hatred because he explained the evolution of life in a way that doesn’t require the hand of God. Darwin didn’t exclude God, of course, though many creationists seem incapable of grasping this point. But he didn’t require God, either, and that was enough to drive some people mad. Darwin also didn’t have anything to say about how life got started in the first place — which still leaves a mighty big role for God to play, for those who are so inclined.

But that could be about to change, and things could get a whole lot worse for creationists because of Jeremy England, a young MIT professor who’s proposed a theory, based in thermodynamics, showing that the emergence of life was not accidental, but necessary. The notion of an evolutionary process broader than life itself is not entirely new. Colourful Chemistry. An index of all the infographics posted on the site – just click the image to go to the relevant page.

Colourful Chemistry

Elements | Food Chemistry | Alcohol Chemistry | Organic Chemistry | Everyday Compounds | Colourful Chemistry | Aroma Chemistry | Other Graphics Elements Infographics Group 1 The Alkali Metals info: This is one of the infographics I've been making as part of a classroom display. There are a couple of others finished with the others being works in progress that will hopefully be completed over the next few weeks. Group 2 The Alkaline Earth Metals The second of a series of infographics on the groups of the periodic table, here some general properties of the group 2 elements are examined. If you want to download this infographic for your own use, you can get a high res pdf file here. Group 3 The Icosagens Group 4 The Crystallogens Group 5 The Pnictogens Group 6 The Chalcogens Group 7 The Halogens Group 8 The Noble Gases The Transition Metals Elements Timeline Trends in the Periodic Table The Chemistry of Coffee.

List of unsolved problems in physics. Some of the major unsolved problems in physics are theoretical, meaning that existing theories seem incapable of explaining a certain observed phenomenon or experimental result.

List of unsolved problems in physics

The others are experimental, meaning that there is a difficulty in creating an experiment to test a proposed theory or investigate a phenomenon in greater detail. Unsolved problems by subfield[edit] The following is a list of unsolved problems grouped into broad area of physics.[1] Cosmology, and general relativity[edit] Cosmic inflation Is the theory of cosmic inflation correct, and if so, what are the details of this epoch? Horizon problem Electroweak Horizon Problem Why aren't there obvious large-scale discontinuities in the electroweak vacuum, if distant parts of the observable universe were causally separate when the electroweak epoch ended? Future of the universe Is the universe heading towards a Big Freeze, a Big Rip, a Big Crunch or a Big Bounce? Gravitational wave Can gravitational waves be directly detected?

. Thermometer measures temperature to 30 billionths of a degree. The thermometer is three times more accurate than current systemsIt works by circulating green and red light around a disc-shaped crystalAs the crystal heats up, the red light slows down compared to green lightBy forcing the light to circulate thousands of times, scientists can measure the difference in speed - and as a result temperature - with great precision By Ellie Zolfagharifard Published: 13:15 GMT, 2 June 2014 | Updated: 14:46 GMT, 2 June 2014 Scientists have developed the world’s most sensitive thermometer capable of measuring temperature to 30 billionths of a degree.

Thermometer measures temperature to 30 billionths of a degree

The device, named the nano-Kelvin thermometer, is three times more precise than the best thermometers in existence. It is so precise that scientists claim they are able to measure the temperature changes of objects as their atoms move around. The device, named the nano-Kelvin thermometer, forces red and green light to circulate thousands of times around the edge of a disc-shaped crystal. Oxford University scientists create a 'SUPERNOVA' in the lab.

A team from Oxford University have recreated a supernova explosionThe experiment was performed with the UK's Vulcan laser facilityThey heated a rod to millions of degrees by focusing 3 laser beams on itThe rod then exploded into a surrounding gas, mimicking the interaction between a star going supernova and the interstellar mediumResults prove that supernovas do not expand uniformly as once thoughtCould also solve the mystery of how magnetic fields formed in the universe By Jonathan O'Callaghan Published: 11:24 GMT, 2 June 2014 | Updated: 14:34 GMT, 2 June 2014 A team of scientists have recreated a supernova in a laboratory.

Oxford University scientists create a 'SUPERNOVA' in the lab

Using laser beams 60,000 billion times more powerful than a laser pointer, the Oxford University team made scaled supernova explosions on a table-top. They say this could be used to study supernova explosions in the laboratory, instead of observing them in space. Oxford University scientists have recreated a supernova in a laboratory. The physics of water drops and lift-off. The flow of fluids is one of the most complex, beautiful, and amazing things in physics.

The physics of water drops and lift-off

Slow motion pictures of drops landing on water or of two fluids mixing can be simply gorgeous. Even more amazing, the basic physics of fluid flow was worked out way back in the 19th century. Those equations, though, hold riches that are still being uncovered today. Some of the most spectacular work in recent years has involved uncovering what happens as a drop of fluid hits a surface. And one particularly stubborn aspect—why do you get lift-off (a precursor to a splash) near the end of the impact? To splash or not to splash? At first, the impact of a slow-speed droplet on a surface seemed very difficult to understand. Then something weird happens: the edges of the drop become unstable and lift off the surface. Why doesn't this happen? To explain this, scientists proposed that the droplet eventually outruns the air and comes in direct contact with the surface.

Imaging with TIRM So, what happens? Direction of Time Fuzzy for Subatomic Particles. Subatomic particles don't care if time moves forward or backward — it's all the same to them.

Direction of Time Fuzzy for Subatomic Particles

But now physicists have found proof of one theorized exception to this rule. Usually, time is symmetrical for particles, meaning events happen the same way if time progresses forward or backward. For example, a video of two particles colliding and scattering off each other can be played forward or backward, and makes sense either way. (That's not the case for macroscopic objects in the real world. You can spill a glass of milk on the floor, but if time were to move backward, the milk can't pick itself up and fall back into the glass.) However, physicists thought there might be cases where time wasn't symmetrical for particles either — where certain events worked with time flowing in one direction and not the other. This is the first solid proof of time asymmetry for subatomic particles.

The discovery was reported this month in the journal Physical Review Letters. Spooky Entanglement, Antimatter & Nuclear Fusion. By Clara Moskowitz, LiveScience Senior Writer | February 18, 2011 08:55am ET Credit: Mark Dennis.

Spooky Entanglement, Antimatter & Nuclear Fusion

From bizarre antimatter to experiments that tie light up in knots, physics has revealed some spooky sides of our world. Here are seven of the most mind-blowing recent discoveries. Author Bio Clara Moskowitz Clara has a bachelor's degree in astronomy and physics from Wesleyan University, and a graduate certificate in science writing from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Clara Moskowitz on. The Coolest Little Particles in Nature. Dreamy Images Reveal Beauty in Physics. A dreamy new exhibition of images showcases the art of physics, from the beauty of a bubble rising to the flow of water around coral.

Dreamy Images Reveal Beauty in Physics

The images, part of the American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics Gallery of Fluid Motion, are drawn from the most artistic and evocative research presented at the Fluid Dynamics annual meeting. The meeting was held from Nov. 18-20 in San Diego. A panel of referees chose the images based on artistic merit and ability to represent complex physics topics.

Among the honorees is a photograph of a flow of honey spiraling as it hits the surface of water in a crystal goblet, representing "liquid rope coiling," a physics phenomenon that should be familiar to anyone who has ever poured a stream of honey onto a biscuit. In the water, the coiled flow stretches and deforms before settling on the bottom of the glass. Water moving around a cylinder forms complex vortex patterns.Credit: C. One image even has a do-it-yourself flare. Top 50 Physics Ideas: the principles that changed the world. The following list is based on an excellent science book known as the 50 Physics Ideas You Really Need to Know. It is about the top ideas that change this natural science forever and help us have a better understanding of nature and how the universe behaves. It covers the discoveries of the last two millennia from the mathematic laws of nature developed by the ancient Greeks way up to the infinite possibilities of Quantum Physics, passing be key elements of Scientific Revolution.

The list as well as the book is dived into various sections including Matter In Motion, Beneath The Waves, Conundrums, Splitting Atoms and finally Space and Time. Hopefully, it will give you a good overview of Physics, one of academic oldest disciplines. Click here to get the Physics book now, best prices guaranteed. Topics Matter in Motion The following is some of the most important physics ideas about matter and motion, including: Mach’s principle Mach’s principle: where mass matters for motion Kepler’s laws.

Physics. Watch the everyday Slinky 'defy' the laws of physics and gravity (but try not to go loopy) By Eddie Wrenn Published: 09:09 GMT, 22 June 2012 | Updated: 10:42 GMT, 22 June 2012 It's a childhood toy that we have probably all seen - but watch it in slow-motion, and the Slinky appears to defy the laws of physics., a site which wants to share the wonders of science through close-up and slow-motion, gives us a startling new look at how a Slinky, the treasured toy which first sprang to life in 1945, seems to ignore gravity. As the Veritasium team drops the Slinky, it starts collapsing from the top-down. But the bottom of the Slinky unnervingly stays put - hanging in space as though it is still being held.

Invented in 1945, the slinky is a nostalgic relic of many people's childhoods: Capture it with a high-speed camera, and it becomes a thing of beauty In super slow-mo, we can see what happens: The slinky collapses on itself, from the top downwards The team have been modelling the Slinky's movements to understand what is going on here, See the video here: How the Modern Physics was invented in the 17th century, part 3: Why Galileo didn’t discover universal gravitation? Note: this is the third of three parts of the essay. The first two parts were published yesterday and the day before (see links at the bottom of the page). The very first discovery in fundamental physics, made by Galileo, – the law of free fall – was also the first discovery in physics of gravity. It was the starting point for Newton’s law of universal gravitation a few decades later. Was it possible for Galileo himself to discover the law of universal gravitation at his level of mathematization and by his style of doing science?

Yes it was, although Galileo’s predisposition was quite unfavorable, since he rejected statements on attraction as an explanation of the Solar system. Galileo is often reproached for his keeping to “backward” ideally circular planetary orbit despite the observational reality summarized in Kepler’s law of elliptical orbits. And he could answer this question by means of math no more sophisticated than the theorem of Pythagoras: V = (gR)½, g(R)~ R-2, An agronomist T.

The secret molecular life of soap bubbles (1913) Nature can be extremely devious in the way it hides its secrets. Sometimes the most remarkable and profound insights are staring us right in the face every day in the most mundane phenomena. For instance, we have all seen the spectacular colors that can appear in soap bubbles: Image from, by Michael Reese Much. Borrowing his lovely images until I can produce my own! These colors are produced by optical interference, as we will discuss below; the “thin film optics” that creates bright colors in soap films also results in the bright colors of oil slicks. A rainbow of color produced by white light reflecting off of a thin layer of diesel fuel on water, via Wikipedia. Most of us would look at a soap film image and marvel at the beautiful rainbow colors; others would investigate the optics underlying them. Indicating that oxygen can only join with carbon in discrete amounts.

Jean Baptiste Perrin An example of destructive interference in thin films. Like this: Like Loading... LHC antimatter anomaly hints at new physics - physics-math - 23 November 2011. Read full article Continue reading page |1|2 The Large Hadron Collider has turned up differences in how particles of matter and antimatter decay that the reigning standard model of physics may not be able to explain WE ARE here thanks to a curious imbalance in the universe. To the best of our knowledge, the universe began with equal, or nearly equal, amounts of matter and antimatter. Because these particles annihilate on contact, they should have destroyed each other long ago in a blaze of radiation, leaving little if anything behind to form stars, planets and people.

The hunt for the special something that might have skewed the universe in favour of matter occupies the best minds in physics. Curiously, the finding does not come from either of the LHC's two main detectors, ATLAS and CMS, which collectively keep 5000 researchers hard at work. Now LHCb has turned up surprisingly large differences in these decay rates. It is not. That could strengthen the result.

More From New Scientist. Animation reveals the world's hidden equations. Quantum Computers Will Solve Problems that would take Today's Computers Longer than the Age of the Universe. Physicists Predict Properties of Prime Numbers from Freezing Liquids. The accidental universe: Science's crisis of faith—By Alan P. Lightman. Physicists observe the splitting of an electron inside a solid. Anonymous Donor Saves Last U.S. Particle Physics Lab From Going Under. Tiny 'Soccer Ball' Space Molecules Could Equal 10,000 Mount Everests.

'Faster Than Light' Neutrino Was Product of Loose Cable at CERN. Scientists capture first image of two atoms INSIDE a molecule (but we'll just have to take their word for it) Welcome to Explorations in Science with Dr. Michio Kaku.