Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258. Ottoman Empire 1350-1918. Safavid Empire 1501-1723. Anthropology of the Middle East - Download free content from MIT. Islamic Heritage Project, Maps. Astronomy in medieval Islam. Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
These developments mostly took place in the Middle East, Central Asia, Al-Andalus, and North Africa, and later in the Far East and India. It closely parallels the genesis of other Islamic sciences in its assimilation of foreign material and the amalgamation of the disparate elements of that material to create a science with Islamic characteristics. These included Greek, Sassanid, and Indian works in particular, which were translated and built upon. In turn, Islamic astronomy later had a significant influence on Byzantine and European astronomy (see Latin translations of the 12th century) as well as Chinese astronomy and Malian astronomy. History Donald Hill (1993) divided Islamic Astronomy into the four following distinct time periods in its history: 700–825
Qanat. A qanāt (Persian: قنات, Arabic: قناة) is one of a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels.
Qanāts create a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid, and semi-arid climates. The qanat technology is known to have been developed by the Persian people sometime in the early 1st millennium BC and spread from there slowly westward and eastward. Baghdad Battery. The Legacy of Al-Andalus: Muslim Spain. By Maryam Noor Beig Al-Andalus, which means, "to become green at the end of the summer" is referred to the territory occupied by the Muslim empire in Southern Spain, which refer to the cities of Almeria, Malaga, Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Cordoba, Jaen and Granada. 1 This civilization spanned the eighth to the fifteenth century.
In 711, Arabs crossed the Straight of Gibraltar (derived from 'Gabal Al-Tariq': 'Mountain of Tariq') and established control over much of the Iberian Peninsula. 2 Of the Arab conquest, Muslims called the area of the Iberian Peninsula they occupied, "Al-Andalus. " This land called Al-Andalus, hence often called "Andalusia" had at one point included Portugal, Southern France, and the Balearic Islands. Within 3 years, in 714, Muslims had occupied almost all the peninsula. Muslims crossed to Sicily and established control there for 130 years, until Muslim rule fell in 1091 to the Normans. Muslims entered Spain not as aggressors or oppressors, but as liberators. 1. Science in the medieval Islamic world. Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) is the science developed and practised in the Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age(c. 750 CE – c. 1258 CE).
During this time, Indian, Asyriac, Iranian and Greek knowledge was translated into Arabic. Sokoto Caliphate. Great Seljuq Empire. The Great Seljuq Empire (Persian: دولت سلجوقیان,Turkish: Büyük Selçuklu Devleti) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf.
From their homelands near the Aral sea, the Seljuqs advanced first into Khorasan and then into mainland Persia before eventually conquering eastern Anatolia. Fatimid Caliphate. The Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic: الفاطميون, al-Fāṭimiyyūn) was a Shia caliphate, which spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.
The dynasty ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of the caliphate. At its height, the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids were descended from Fatimah, the daughter of Prophet Muhammad, according to Fatimid claims. The Fatimid state took shape among the Berber Kutama, the people of Algeria. In 909 Fatimid established the Tunisian city of Mahdia as their capital.
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah. Abu ‘Ali Mansur Tāriqu l-Ḥākim , called Al-Hakim bi Amr al-Lāh ( Arabic : الحاكم بأمر الله ; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the third Fatimid caliph [ 1 ] and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021).
Al-Hakim is an important figure in a number of Shia Ismaili religions, such as the world's 15 million Nizaris and in particular the 2 million Druze of the Levant whose eponymous founder Ad-Darazi proclaimed him as the incarnation of God in 1018. In Western literature he has been referred to as the "Mad Caliph", primarily as a result of the Fatimid desecration of Jerusalem in 1009, though this title is disputed as stemming from partisan writings by some historians (such as Willi Frischauer and Heinz Halm). [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Histories of Al Hakim can prove controversial, [ 4 ] [ 5 ] as diverse views of his life and legacy exist. Umar II. Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 Hijri) – 31 January 720 (16th Rajab, 101 Hijri)  (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720.
He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a female-line great-grandson of the second caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Biography Early life Umar was born around 2 November 682 in Medina. He grow up and lived there until the death of his father, after which he was summoned to Damascus by Abd al-Malik and married to his daughter Fatima. Al-Walid I's era Unlike most rulers of that era, Umar formed a council with which he administered the province.
Sulayman's era Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman. Caliphate and his own era Turko-Persian tradition. The composite Turko-Persian tradition was a variant of Islamic culture. It was Persianate in that it was centered on a lettered tradition of Iranian origin; it was Turkic insofar as it was for many generations patronized by rulers of Turkic background; it was Islamic in that Islamic notions of virtue, permanence, and excellence infused discourse about public issues as well as the religious affairs of the Muslims, who were the presiding elite.