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Strange matter is a particular form of quark matter , usually thought of as a "liquid" of up , down , and strange quarks .
In physics , the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation in the framework of quantum field theory . If it exists, the graviton is expected to be massless (because the gravitational force appears to have unlimited range) and must be a spin -2 boson . The spin follows from the fact that the source of gravitation is the stress-energy tensor , a second-rank tensor (compared to electromagnetism 's spin-1 photon, the source of which is the four-current , a first-rank tensor).
Quantum gravity ( QG ) is a field of theoretical physics that develops scientific models . Its goal is to unify quantum mechanics , which describes three of the four known fundamental interactions , with general relativity , which describes the fourth fundamental interaction, gravity .
The color force favors confinement because at a certain range it is more energetically favorable to create a quark-antiquark pair than to continue to elongate the color flux tube. This is analoguous to the behavior of an elongated rubber-band. An animation of color confinement.
Standard Model of elementary particles
For other uses, see Flavor (disambiguation) .
Fundamental interactions , sometimes called fundamental forces or interactive forces , are described in fundamental physics as patterns of relations in physical systems evolving over time, whose descriptions appear not reducible to relations among entities more basic. The known fundamental interactions are gravitation , electromagnetism , strong nuclear , and weak nuclear which are all non-contact forces . The electromagnetic and weak interactions were modeled together as the electroweak interaction , inferred to operate only at such high temperatures as soon after the presumed Big Bang , although as the early universe cooled, the electroweak interaction split into electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
A quark ( pron.: / ˈ k w ɔr k / or / ˈ k w ɑr k / ) is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter . Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons , the most stable of which are protons and neutrons , the components of atomic nuclei . [ 1 ] Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement , quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation; they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons (of which protons and neutrons are examples), and mesons . [ 2 ] [ 3 ] For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves. There are six types of quarks, known as flavors : up , down , strange , charm , bottom , and top . [ 4 ] Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay : the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state.
In physics or chemistry , subatomic particles are the particles smaller than an atom . [ 1 ] There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles , which are not made of other particles, and composite particles . [ 2 ] Particle physics and nuclear physics study these particles and how they interact . [ 3 ]