Altered neural connectivity in excitatory and inhibitory cortical circuits in autism. Neural Systems Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA Converging evidence from diverse studies suggests that atypical brain connectivity in autism affects in distinct ways short- and long-range cortical pathways, disrupting neural communication and the balance of excitation and inhibition.
This hypothesis is based mostly on functional non-invasive studies that show atypical synchronization and connectivity patterns between cortical areas in children and adults with autism. Indirect methods to study the course and integrity of major brain pathways at low resolution show changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) or diffusivity of the white matter in autism. Findings in post-mortem brains of adults with autism provide evidence of changes in the fine structure of axons below prefrontal cortices, which communicate over short- or long-range pathways with other cortices and subcortical structures. The Amsterdam Resting-State Questionnaire reveals multiple phenotypes of resting-state cognition. A potentiated startle study of uncertainty and contextual anxiety in adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research Paul D Chamberlain, Jacqui Rodgers, Michael J Crowley, Sarah E White, Mark H Freeston and Mikle South For all author emails, please log on.
Paper Finds Genetic Overlap For 5 Major Psychiatric Disorders. An international team has found evidence of substantial overlap for genetic risk factors shared between bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and less overlap between those conditions and autism and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The root causes of psychiatric illnesses are not known. Instead, for the past 125 years, clinicians have based diagnosis on a collection of symptoms observed in patients, something medical science has long left behind - and so the race has been on to find biological links. Oxytocin, the 'love hormone' may have relevance in autism. Asperger's And Autism: Researchers Find Brain Differences. By Bahar Gholipour, Staff Writer Published: 08/05/2013 08:21 AM EDT on LiveScience Children with Asperger's syndrome show patterns of brain connectivity distinct from those of children with autism, according to a new study.
The findings suggest the two conditions, which are now in one category in the new psychiatry diagnostic manual, may be biologically different. The researchers used electroencephalography (EEG) recordings to measure the amount of signaling occurring between brain areas in children. Viewpoint: 10 jargon phrases used for my autistic son. 24 July 2013Last updated at 00:01 ET By Mark Neary Guest blogger Mark and Steven Neary My son Steven is 23.
He has autism and other learning difficulties. Scientists identify key to learning new words. Scientists identify key to learning new words Posted on 23/07/2013 Direct connections between auditory and motor areas (red fibres) in the human brain are dedicated to functions underlying word learning.
For the first time scientists have identified how a pathway in the brain which is unique to humans allows us to learn new words. Undifferentiated facial electromyography responses to dynamic, audio-visual emotion displays in individuals with autism spectrum disorders - Rozga - 2013 - Developmental Science. Kids with autism don't copy 'silly' actions. When imitating the behavior of an adult, children with the developmental disorder autism tend to skip "silly," unnecessary actions, while those without autism tend to copy everything they see, silly or not, a new study suggests.
The study involved 31 children with an autism spectrum disorder, and 30 typically developing kids without autism. All the children were asked to watch as an adult showed how to remove a toy (a rubber duck) from a closed Tupperware container. Current Biology - Children with autism do not overimitate. To view the full text, please login as a subscribed user or purchase a subscription.
Click here to view the full text on ScienceDirect. Figure 1 Performance of all children on the overimitation and rationality discrimination tasks. (A) Number of trials where the unnecessary action was copied (maximum 5) in TD and ASC participants. There was a significant reduction in overimitation behaviour in ASC participants compared to CA-match (F(1,58) = 12.84, p < 0.001) and VMA-match (F(1,58) = 7.01, p = 0.01) TD controls. Cognitive granularity: A new perspective over autistic and non-autistic styles of development - Kozima - 2013 - Japanese Psychological Research. Abstract Individuals with autism generally show better performance on operating physical objects than in communicating with people.
However, we lack a plausible model of autism that explains why their physical and social capabilities develop in separate and unbalanced ways. This paper investigates this question from the viewpoint of “cognitive granularity,” which refers to the size of the basic elements operable in one's cognitive system. Global/Local Processing in Autism: Not a Disability, but a Disinclination - Online First. It is widely suggested that ASD is characterized by atypical local/global processing, but the published findings are contradictory.
In an effort to resolve this question, we tested a large group of children on both a free-choice task and an instructed task using hierarchical local–global stimuli. We find that although children with autism showed a reduced preference to report global properties of a stimulus when given a choice, their ability to process global properties when instructed to do so is unimpaired. The skin-brain axis and autism? I'm sure that many people with an eye on the autism research scene will have come across the term 'gut-brain axis' at some point in their reading. Denoting the suggestion of a possible relationship between what goes on in our deepest, darkest recesses and brain function (and onwards observed behaviour), the gut-brain axis has seemingly found a home particularly when looking at autism spectrum disorders.
Be it when it comes to describing the potential hows and whys of things like a gluten- and casein-free diet (potentially) showing some effects, or those quite consistent findings of elevated rates of gastrointestinal (GI) issues reported in at least a proportion of cases of autism(s), the gut-brain axis seems to be quite an enduring concept as it might also be in other conditions such as schizophrenia. Correlation between autism diagnosis and organic food sales. When the world becomes 'too real': a Bayesia... [Trends Cogn Sci. 2012. Trends in Cognitive Sciences - Alternative Bayesian accounts of autistic perception: comment on Pellicano and Burr. The Neurocritic: Savoir Faire or Savant? Is amygdala volume correlated with social network size or with special talents in autism spectrum disorders? Or both?? The amygdala is a subcortical structure located within the medial temporal lobes.
It consists of a number of different nuclei, or collections of neurons delineated by commonalities in morphology and connectivity. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, Online First™ Bronchoscopic evaluations revealed that some children have double branching of bronchi (designated “doublets”) in the lower lungs airways, rather than normal, single branching. Retrospective analyses revealed only one commonality in them: all subjects with doublets also had autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). That is, 49 subjects exhibited the presence of initial normal anatomy in upper airway followed by doublets in the lower airway. In contrast, the normal branching pattern was noted in all the remaining 410 subjects who did not have a diagnosis of autism/ASD. We propose that the presence of doublets might be an objective, reliable, and valid biologic marker of autism/ASD.
Presented in part to the American College of Chest Physicians International Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii in October, 2011, by B.A.S. Temporal discounting of monetary rewards in children and adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders - Demurie - 2012 - Developmental Science. Consciousness as the key to our mental traits. Clare Wilson, features editor In The Ravenous Brain Daniel Bor explores consciousness and suggests that its level of activity is linked to several psychiatric conditions It is a long-standing philosophical conundrum: is consciousness somehow separate from the physical world or merely an illusion conjured up by our complex brains? It took his father's stroke to convince Daniel Bor which side he was on. Impaired social brain network for processing dynamic facial expressions in autism spectrum disorders.
Altered integration of speech and gesture in children with autism spectrum disorders - Hubbard - 2012 - Brain and Behavior. Original Research You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article Amy L. Zinc and Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Affective Responses by Adults with Autism Are Reduced to Social Images but Elevated to Images Related to Circumscribed Interests. In my shoes - Aspienaut - WIRED differently. Rare Genetic Illness May Shed Light on Role of Hormones in Autism, Anxiety.
Cognition and cannabis: from anecdote to advanced technology. 'Trust' hormone oxytocin found at heart of rare genetic disorder. Are Atheists More Autistic Than Believers? Cognition and behavior: Reward circuit abnormal in autism — SFARI. Turning Kanner’s model of autism upside-down « what is autism anyway? The genetics of autism spectrum disorders. Autism, Ethics and the Good Life: an introduction. Cold and Lonely.
Seth Mnookin: Autism Roundtable: Cross-Disability Solidarity, Goals for the Future, and What it Means to "Fit in" Prenatal testosterone linked to increased risk of language delay for male infants, study shows. Why Do People Yawn? You're more likely to catch a yawn from a relative than a stranger. Model empathy — SFARI. Trained Peers Better at Aiding Autistic Kids with Social Skills. Using Skin-Cell Research to Probe Cellular Basis of Autism. How Mutations May Lead to Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder. Autistic Brains Grow More Slowly. IQ Testing Underestimates Autism Spectrum Intelligence. Lost and Tired » 10 Things my Autistic kids wished you knew.
New Genetic Links Found Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder. Genetic Link Between Epilepsy and Schizophrenia. Children with autism demonstrate superior change detection skills. The Autism Crisis. The curious case of the reversed pronoun. PTSD Impairs Detection of Emotional Cues. Study finds new ADHD genes, links susceptibility with autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. Baroness Greenfield's contribution to autism science.
Does X Mark the Spot for ASD? Rearranging the Introversion-Extroversion Schema. New brain imaging research reveals why autistic individuals confuse pronouns. How the brain assigns objects to categories. Social deficits associated with autism, schizophrenia induced in mice with new technology. Brain Connectivity, Or Head Movement? People at darker, higher latitudes evolved bigger eyes and brains. Brain Imaging Can Diagnose Autism in Most Infants. Older people find it harder to see the wood for the trees. Your Bad Teacher Experiences Can Make Your Child’s Teachers Better. Speed limit on babies' vision. ARC: Whats New. Biomarker for autism discovered. Autism research centre. Infants learn to transfer knowledge by 16 months, study finds. Rhesus monkeys have a form of self awareness not previously attributed to them.
This picture will make it more likely that you'll seek help. The Role of Anxiety Master. Researchers find master switch for adult epilepsy. A neuropsychological perspective on procrastination. Natural approach to treating child’s autism shows promise. Why Celebrities Like Katy Perry Don’t Want People to Make Eye Contact. Love Hurts…For Real. Each Half of the Brain Has Its Own Memory Storage. Brain Basis for Emotion Recognition Deficits in Depression. Sight requires exact pattern of neural activity to be wired in the womb. Weaker brain 'sync' may be early sign of autism. Face-blindness solution found by Ayrshire optician. Toddlers won't bother learning from you if you're daft. How we come to know our bodies as our own. Does Everyone Have ADD? Concentration Interruptus and "Pseudo ADD" It's Different for Girls. Monkeys might be more logical than we think. Field Guide to the Loner: The Real Insiders. New study locates the source of key brain function.
Babies Are Capable of Complex Reasoning. Pervasive microstructural abnormalities in autism: a DTI study. Why Do Autistics Score Poorly On The Eyes Test? Aspergers, Bullying and Self-advocacy. Scientists Afflict Computers with Schizophrenia to Better Understand the Human Brain. Why people with schizophrenia may have trouble reading social cues. Genetic variations of the melatonin pathway in patients with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders - Chaste - Journal of Pineal Research. Language learning: Researchers use video games to crack the speech code. Genetic Mutations Linked to Autistic Spectrum Disorders. Tiny variation in one gene may have led to crucial changes in human brain. Aspergirls.