Fugue state. Dissociative disorder Dissociative fugue, formerly fugue state or psychogenic fugue, is a dissociative disorder and a rare psychiatric disorder characterized by reversible amnesia for personal identity, including the memories, personality, and other identifying characteristics of individuality. The state can last days, months or longer.
Dissociative fugue usually involves unplanned travel or wandering and is sometimes accompanied by the establishment of a new identity. It is a facet of dissociative amnesia, according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). After recovery from a fugue state, previous memories usually return intact, and further treatment is unnecessary. Signs and symptoms Symptoms of a dissociative fugue include mild confusion and once the fugue ends, possible depression, grief, shame, and discomfort. Diagnosis Definition The DSM-IV  defines "dissociative fugue" as: Prognosis Cases Schizophrenia may be the price of our humanity. Plenty of us have known a dog on Prozac. We have also witnessed the eye rolls that come with the mention of canine psychiatry.
Doting pet owners—myself included—ascribe all kinds of questionable psychological ills to our pawed companions. But in fact, the science suggests that numerous nonhuman species do suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Birds obsess; horses on occasion get pathologically compulsive; dolphins and whales, especially those in captivity, self-mutilate. And that thing when your dog woefully watches you pull out of the driveway from the window—that might be DSM-certified separation anxiety.
“Every animal with a mind has the capacity to lose hold of it from time to time,” wrote science historian and author Laurel Braitman in her 2014 book Animal Madness. But at least one mental malady, while common in humans, seems to have spared other animals: schizophrenia, which affects an estimated 0.4 to 1 percent of adults. Positive psychology. To Martin Seligman, psychology (particularly its positive branch) can investigate and promote realistic ways of fostering more joy in individuals and communities.
Positive psychology is a recent branch of psychology whose purpose was summed up in 1998 by Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: "We believe that a psychology of positive human functioning will arise, which achieves a scientific understanding and effective interventions to build thriving individuals, families, and communities. " Positive psychologists seek "to find and nurture genius and talent" and "to make normal life more fulfilling", rather than merely treating mental illness.
Positive psychology is primarily concerned with using the psychological theory, research and intervention techniques to understand the positive, adaptive, creative and emotionally fulfilling aspects of human behavior. Overview Research from this branch of psychology has seen various practical applications. The goal Depression and the Limits of Psychiatry. The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. I’ve recently been following the controversies about revisions to the psychiatric definition of depression. I’ve also been teaching a graduate seminar on Michel Foucault, beginning with a reading of his “History of Madness.” This massive volume tries to discover the origins of modern psychiatric practice and raises questions about its meaning and validity.
The debate over depression is an excellent test case for Foucault’s critique. At the center of that critique is Foucault’s claim that modern psychiatry, while purporting to be grounded in scientific truths, is primarily a system of moral judgments. “What we call psychiatric practice,” he says, “is a certain moral tactic . . . covered over by the myths of positivism.” Foucault may well be letting his rhetoric outstrip the truth, but his essential point requires serious consideration.
Embattled childhoods may be the real trauma for soldiers with PTSD. New research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers challenges popular assumptions about the origins and trajectory of PTSD, providing evidence that traumatic experiences in childhood -- not combat -- may predict which soldiers develop the disorder. Psychological scientist Dorthe Berntsen of Aarhus University in Denmark and a team of Danish and American researchers wanted to understand why some soldiers develop PTSD but others don't.
They also wanted to develop a clearer understanding of how the symptoms of the disorder progress. "Most studies on PTSD in soldiers following service in war zones do not include measures of PTSD symptoms prior to deployment and thus suffer from a baseline problem. Only a few studies have examined pre- to post-deployment changes in PTSD symptoms, and most only use a single before-and-after measure," says Berntsen. What Berntsen and her colleagues found challenges several widely held assumptions about the nature of PTSD. On the Edge. On June 12, 2004, my brother Eric was admitted to the emergency room at Mass.
General Hospital, unconscious after what appeared to be a failed suicide attempt. His wife, Cheryl, had found him passed out near the floor of their bedroom closet, a wire wrapped around his neck and attached to the closet pole. Had she gotten home any later, he might not have been alive. I arrived at the hospital a few hours after he had been brought in, joining Cheryl and my oldest sister, Lisa. A few weeks later, after Eric had agreed to go into an outpatient program but failed to show up for any appointments, he was found in his Winthrop apartment, slouched over on his knees. As most clinicians would agree, one of the most heartbreaking aspects of psychiatric emergency work is the suicidal patient. Eric's self-report became an important factor in deciding what to do. Of course, I can't help thinking about whether such a test could have saved my brother.
But there are other reservations. Dr. Scientists Afflict Computers with Schizophrenia to Better Understand the Human Brain. May 5, 2011 AUSTIN, Texas — Computer networks that can't forget fast enough can show symptoms of a kind of virtual schizophrenia, giving researchers further clues to the inner workings of schizophrenic brains, researchers at The University of Texas at Austin and Yale University have found. The researchers used a virtual computer model, or "neural network," to simulate the excessive release of dopamine in the brain. They found that the network recalled memories in a distinctly schizophrenic-like fashion. Their results were published in April in Biological Psychiatry. "The hypothesis is that dopamine encodes the importance — the salience — of experience," says Uli Grasemann, a graduate student in the Department of Computer Science at The University of Texas at Austin.
The neural network used by Grasemann and his adviser, Professor Risto Miikkulainen, is called DISCERN. In order to model the process, Grasemann and Miikkulainen began by teaching a series of simple stories to DISCERN. Depression can damage the brain. Depression can cause some areas of the brain to shrink – and the damage can last, even when the disease has stopped.
(Photo: Colourbox) A depression not only makes a person feel sad and dejected – it can also damage the brain permanently, so the person has difficulties remembering and concentrating once the disease is over. Up to 20 percent of depression patients never make a full recovery. These are the conclusions of two projects conducted by Professor Poul Videbech, a specialist in psychiatry at the Centre for Psychiatric Research at Aarhus University Hospital. In one of the projects he scanned the brains of people suffering from depression, and in the other he conducted a systematic review of all the scientific literature on the subject. ”My review shows that a depression leaves its mark on the brain as it results in a ten percent reduction of the hippocampus,” he says. ”In some cases, this reduction continues when the depression itself is over.” Antidepressants can help. Depression is predictable.
A vulnerability gene combined with a stressful event can trigger clinical depression. (Photo: Colourbox) Researchers have for a long time tried to understand how a particular gene affects our brain. It is known that the gene, which codes for the neurotransmitter serotonin, predisposes for depression. When people with the short “serotonin gene” experience stressful events the chances for development of clinical depression increase. The emotions take over PhD candidate Rune Jonassen at the Department of Psychology, University of Oslo has studied the interaction between inheritance and environment. He has looked into how people with the short variant of this gene reacted to tasks which became progressively more and more difficult. “Compare this with stressful episodes in your life; when your life becomes harder and you are exposed to more and more stress. “People with the short gene had problems with working memory during the tasks we gave them.
You come no further Individualised treatment. Ketamine Relieves Depression By Restoring Brain Connections : Shots - Health Blog. Hide captionChris Stephens, 28, has been battling depression all of his life. At times he wouldn't get out of bed for weeks. In January, he said his depression hadn't returned since he started taking ketamine. Lianne Milton/For NPR Chris Stephens, 28, has been battling depression all of his life. Scientists say they have figured out how an experimental drug called ketamine is able to relieve major depression in hours instead of weeks. Researchers from Yale and the National Institute of Mental Health say ketamine seems to cause a burst of new connections to form between nerve cells in parts of the brain involved in emotion and mood.
The discovery, described in Science, should speed development of the first truly new depression drugs since the 1970s, the researchers say. "It's exciting," says Ron Duman, a a psychiatarist and neurobiologist at Yale University. Ketamine is an FDA-approved anesthetic. Hide captionA rat neuron before (top) and after (bottom) ketamine treatment. Stress-coping strategies can save teens from becoming suicidal. 40 percent of youth who attempt suicide have tried more than once.. (Photo: Colourbox) Countries like Norway, Denmark and Sweden score consistently high on measures of life satisfaction and happiness, but numerous studies show that these countries also have relatively high suicide rates.
It is estimated that for every suicide among youths, there are approximately ten attempted ones. There are between 500 and 600 known suicides per year in Norway, and in 2010 about 70 of these were in the ages of 15-24. Latha Nrugham at the National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention and her colleagues studied suicidal behaviour in this age group and they found a clear link between task-oriented coping and suicide attempts. A total of 252 selectively sampled teens were followed for six years, starting when the mean age was 14 and ending when it was 20. Stress-coping strategies One simple definition has task-oriented coping as “the ability to effectively cope with stressors.” Latha Nrugham (Photo: UiB) Update: Thomas Szasz, Manlius psychiatrist who disputed existence of mental illness, dies at 92.
Gary Walts / File photoDr. Thomas Szasz speaks at the 2001 commencement for Upstate Medical University, where he received an honorary doctor of science degree. Szasz, who died Saturday, was a psychiatrist known internationally for disputing the existence of mental illness. Manlius, NY – Dr. Thomas S. Szasz, a psychiatrist who questioned the existence of mental illness and fought against the forced treatment of patients, died Saturday at his home in Manlius. In “The Myth of Mental Illness,” published in 1961, Szasz argued that behaviors that colleagues attributed to diseases of the brain actually described “problems in living.” “I am probably the only psychiatrist in the world whose hands are clean,” Szasz told the newspaper. The approach Szasz rebelled against treated people as patients whose behavior somehow failed to meet the expectations of government or some other authority, said Dr. “Many of the specific things he sought to bring about have not changed.
His daughter, Dr. Read more: Dysthymia. According to the diagnosis manual DSM-IV of 1994, dysthymia is a serious state of chronic depression, which persists for at least 2 years (1 year for children and adolescents); it is less acute and severe than major depressive disorder. As dysthymia is a chronic disorder, sufferers may experience symptoms for many years before it is diagnosed, if diagnosis occurs at all. As a result, they may believe that depression is a part of their character, so they may not even discuss their symptoms with doctors, family members, or friends. Dysthymia often co-occurs with other mental disorders. A "double depression" is the occurrence of episodes of major depression in addition to dysthymia. Switching between periods of dysthymic moods and periods of hypomanic moods is indicative of cyclothymia, which is a mild variant of bipolar disorder.
The DSM-5, the 5th edition of the DSM, was released in May 2013 and includes a number of changes. Signs and symptoms Causes Double depression Blocking the voices in your head. In the autumn of 2010, Josef Johann Bless was listening to music on his iPhone when he was suddenly had an idea. "I was listening to a number of instruments, and as the sounds of the instruments were distributed differently to each ear, it struck me that this was very similar to the dichotic listening tests we routinely use in our laboratory," says Bless, who is a PhD candidate at University of Bergen's Faculty of Psychology and a member of the Bergen fMRI Group. "In dichotic listening, each ear is presented with different syllable sounds, and the listener must identify which syllable seems clearest". Inspired by what he was hearing, Bless set about thinking how he could put his observation to good use.
The idea he came up with was cunning in its simplicity, and very modern: an iPhone app called iDichotic. Dichotic listening is a test of language processing and of attention. "The test determines this. A field experiment Going international "The app has given us new options.