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Ananya Sharma

I have completed B.Tech in electronics and now working with Xinoe-eXperienced International Network Of Engineers offers Advanced R&D Training Program in Embedded Systems Development, Programming and VLSI Design. For More Information Visit :

TRANSACTION LEVEL MODELING (TLM) Transaction-level modeling aka TLM is a technique, to modeling a system without knowing any relative info of communication among modules from details of the implementing of communication architecture, by using function calls that define transactions over a set of channels.


TLM descriptions may be more abstract or higher level approach, therefore their simulation speed is higher than register-transfer-level (RTL) descriptions. Why TLM Used? Transaction level modeling is preferred due to following reasons: TLM modeling simulates faster as compared to RTL model.Providing an early entry for software development on virtual model of hardware platform.Preferred as a Golden model for hardware verification.System Level Design Exploration and Verification.Provides interoperability.Provides more reusability, supporting oops techniques such as inheritance, encapsulation.

Useful Skew to Boost System Performance. Clock Skew Clock Skew If a clock edge does not arrive at different flip-flops at exactly the same time, then the clock is said to be skewed between these flip-flops.

Useful Skew to Boost System Performance

The difference between the times of arrival at the flip-flops is said to be the amount of clock skew.Clock skew is due to different delays on different paths from the clock generator to the various flip-flops i.e Different length wires (wires have delay), Gates (buffers) on the paths, Flip-Flops that clock on different edges (need to invert clock for some flip-flops). INTRODUCTION TO ROUTING IN COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN (CAD) In today’s era of Nano-Metric regime design, VLSI technology permits us to integrate systems with millions of transistors on a single chip, that increases complexity of the chip design, and it has almost becomes mandatory to execute the routing algorithm repeatedly for optimal solutions.


The physical design phase divided into three steps: Partitioning, Placement and Routing. In routing phase there are two major steps: Global and Detailed routing, the goal of global routing is to simplify the interconnections scheme in order to reduce the complexity of detailed routing process, where the exact location of each pin will be defined. Design Flow of VLSI. Ever wondered about how those chips present in almost every electronic components are manufactured and how even a very complex function is performed in seconds using these structures having lots of interconnected lines and dots.

Design Flow of VLSI

Well here comes VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration). VLSI PARTITIONING. ADIABATIC LOGIC CIRCUIT. As goes on increasing market demand of VLSI industry in every field now, it is necessary to add more and more functionalities with reducing area and power consumed.


This has the challenged for circuit designers to design the power ware circuits. This process utilized various techniques to reduce the power dissipation of circuit utilizing. Wearable Body Vitals Monitoring Systems. Remarkable Breakthrough in Embedded System Design:Wearable Body Vitals Monitoring Systems- A Precursor to our own private doctor!

Wearable Body Vitals Monitoring Systems

Dear Readers, Don’t we often drown ourselves under our workload so much so, that we end up forgetting things of utter importance and are like, “oh! Forgot to take my medicine again ” or “ crap! Why can’t I remember my doctor’s appointment ever”. Accept it people,we totally do this and there’s no escaping it. Happy times ahead then, ’cause this is not a faraway dream anymore. The underlying concern for embedded system designing with respect to body vital signal monitoring is to pay attention to the constraining factors such as size, power consumption,weight, information security and reliability .

Smart LEDs : An Embedded Electronic Boon and The 21st Century Solution to Efficient Lighting. When Thomas Alva Edison discovered the first commercial incandescent light bulb using a carbon filament, way back in 1870′s, little did he know that his discovery would be used even after hundreds of years as a symbol of innovation. ( Recall how often we use the picture of a light bulb whenever we come across an idea, defining innovation- pop goes a yellow light bulb “what an idea sir ji”, rings a bell doesn’t it ) The basic principle of working behind the original incandescent bulb is the flow of energy through a filament.

Smart LEDs : An Embedded Electronic Boon and The 21st Century Solution to Efficient Lighting

The electricity flowing through the filament causes the filament to heat up and glow. However this is a very inefficient procedure of generating light as most of the energy, almost around 95 percent of it goes wasted in the form of heat emissions. The light so produced, though pleasant, consumes much more electricity than required. Next came the discovery of fluorescent tube lights in the 1940s, commercialized in 1970s. Functional Behavior Of Architectural Model In Embedded System Design. In terms of a layman, any embedded system can be thought of as a computing system that is designed to serve a dedicated purpose.

Functional Behavior Of Architectural Model In Embedded System Design

Unlike a general purpose computer that can perform a spectrum of tasks and is very complex, an embedded system is rather simplified and does not have unnecessary hardware. Embedded systems range from low end devices like calculators, smart cards, PDAs, sensors to high end devices like routers, cellphones and home appliances that are pervasive in our lives. Embedded systems are becoming increasingly interactive with the physical world causing the demand to migrate from standalone systems towards networked environments to escalate. How To Solve The Biggest Problems With Embedded System Training. Look around yourself.

How To Solve The Biggest Problems With Embedded System Training

There !!! Though you don’t acknowledge the inevitable entrance of electronics in your daily routine, you would find your life perfectly entwined around silicon mavericks. Right from high-end mobile phones to washing machines, from smart air-conditioners to smart watches, or for that matter, just any other device having some basic level of built-in intelligence, embedded electronics is as omnipresent as can be. The most genuine question that pops in one’s head initially is,“What exactly is an embedded system?” A Comparison Between VLSI and Embedded Systems : Get The Facts Right! With the summer catching up fast, you must be prepared to fight off this heat with proper sun blocks, cotton fabric attire and lots of fluid intake.

A Comparison Between VLSI and Embedded Systems : Get The Facts Right!

ASIC or FPGA : The Fairer Technology ? Dear Readers! While starting out your career in the electronics field, you all must have been in an interview where you are asked to differentiate between ASIC and FPGA? You end up pondering deep into concepts to mumble a few points and yet the question keeps playing in your head. So what actually accounts for the major differences between the two leading VLSI techniques, namely ASICs and FPGAs. Let us take a broader opinion. We are aware that the Application Specific Integrated Circuits, or ASICs, are specialized chips that perform pre-defined functions along with operating at very high performance levels.

Tech Project : Time to Technovate with Xinoe and the latest technologies !!! Hey there Readers ! Xinoe’s emphasis on active, hands-on learning has come to a full circle with the company sponsoring a capstone project for students pursuing graduation or post graduation in engineering or technical courses related to the fields of VLSI /Embedded/ CS/ IT. This comes with an added advantage of presenting an opportunity to the students to meet and be mentored by industry experts, in person.

Xinoe Tech Project, provides a chance to ‘technovate’ with Xinoe. This signature approach of combining theoretical grasp of any subject with the much sought-after practical implementation and problem solving aims to create a platform to bring together brilliant young minds and expertise of the skilled technical team to catalyze the innovation process.

Through this sponsorship program, Xinoe wants to make students think laterally about the problems and challenges the technology oriented industries are plagued with and their possible ways-out. Cheap Memory, Complex Controller – IP to the Rescue. From the past few years the electronics market and, more particularly, the memory market has undergone the considerable change. DDR is making major inroads into graphics, networking, servers, image and printing applications, PCs, laptop, and high-end workstations. Double Data Rate (DDR) SDRAM memories are synchronous DRAM memories introduced as high bandwidth memories as they transfer data at both the clock edges. The structural design of DRAMs allows packing more storage into the memory than with the structural design of SRAMs.

This causes the address lines width to grow in size too. EMBEDDED SYSTEM IN AUTOMOBILE. EMBEDDED SYSTEM – Embedded system is basically acombination of hardware and software, which is used to perform a specific embedded system is used in most of the electronics equipment, mostly in the automobile. AUTOMOTIVE EMBEDDED SYSTEM – It is basically a embedded system that is embeddded into a vehicle, and its function in the electronic control unit.most of the system control in vehicles through the embedded system, like in air bags, rain sensing wipers, in satellite radio, night vision, antilock breaks,temprature control etc. 1. Energy saving,low power. 2. Comfortness,entertainment,convenience. 3.

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS IN MEDICAL DEVICES. Embedded Technology : It is as simple as a software implementation on a hardware. The market of embedded systems growing with furious speed. And it attained an immense popularity all around the world. Although the products of this technology are small in size but they are very highly efficient and reliable. Basics of System Verilog Training to Set Up Your Very First Verification Environment. Hello readers! Being a VLSI engineer (fresher) Introduction Guide to Windows Embedded System. Features of Multicore Embedded Systems Development. Multi-core has become a hot topic in recent years. Intelligent Tracking System - Project Training Experience by Trainee of Xinoe Systems. While working as an intern in Xinoe Systems, I got to learn about various embedded hardware projects and numerous ways of writing embedded software codes.

Need of Verification Methodologies: Does SV not suffice?