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馬克思主義入門

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Info1. Info2. IMG 0001. IMG 0003. IMG 0002. IMG. IMG 0005. IMG 0004. 第二章. 社會不平等的根源. 第三章. 國家、階級支配的工具. 第四章。小商品生產到資本主義生產. 第五章 資本主義經濟. 第六章 壟斷資本主義. 第七章 世界帝國主義體系. 第八章 近代工人運動的起源. 罗伯特·欧文. 罗伯特·欧文(Robert Owen,1771年5月14日 - 1858年11月17日),英国乌托邦社会主义者,也是一位企业家、慈善家。

罗伯特·欧文

欧文出身贫寒,当过学徒、店长、后来成为了一家工厂老板。 他在自己的工厂中主动缩短工人的劳动时间,改善福利条件,提高工资。 他曾为十岁以下的儿童开设了托儿所、幼儿园和小学,为从事生产的少年建立了夜校。 1824年欧文在美国印第安纳州买下1214公顷土地,开始新和谐移民区实验,但实验以失败告终。 欧文在历史上第一次揭示了无产阶级贫困的原因,并从生产力的角度提出公有制与大生产的紧密关系。 最著名的著作为《新社会观》《新道德世界书》。 教育与生产劳动相结合,是欧文对人类教育理论宝库的一大贡献。 为了普及教育,欧文主张建立教育制度,实行教育立法。 歐文選集. 约瑟夫·傅里叶. 约瑟夫·傅里叶男爵(法语:Joseph Fourier,1768年3月21日-1830年5月16日),法国数学家、物理学家,提出傅里叶级数,并将其应用于热传导理论與振動理論,傅里叶变换也以他命名。

约瑟夫·傅里叶

他被歸功為溫室效應的發現者。 傅立葉選集. 克勞德·昂列·聖西門. 克劳德·昂列·圣西门(Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon,1760年10月17日 - 1825年5月19日)是法国哲学家,经济学家,空想社会主义者。

克勞德·昂列·聖西門

與實證主義創始人奧古斯特·孔德相熟,曾聘其為秘書。 圣西门出身贵族,曾参加法国大革命,还参加过北美独立战争。 聖西門選集. 第九章 改良和革命. 第十章 資產階民主和無產階級民主. 第十一章 第一次帝國主義大戰和俄國革命. 列宁. 弗拉基米尔·伊里奇·乌里扬诺夫(俄語:Влади́мир Ильи́ч Улья́нов,IPA:[vɫɐˈdʲimʲɪr ɪlʲˈjit͡ɕ ʊlʲˈjænəf],1870年4月22日-1924年1月21日),别名列宁(俄語:Ле́нин,IPA:[ˈlʲenʲɪn]( 聆聽)),著名的马克思主义者、革命家、政治家、理论家、思想家,俄国共产党(布尔什维克)创立者,苏联的主要建立者和第一位最高领导人,首任苏联人民委员会主席(政府总理)。

列宁

列宁是他参加革命后的化名,他发展了马克思主义,形成了列宁主义理论,马克思列宁主义者称他为“全世界无产阶级和劳动人民的伟大导师和领袖”。 他是20世纪最有影响力和评价最具争议的人物之一。 列夫·达维多维奇·托洛茨基. 列夫·达维多维奇·托洛茨基(或譯托洛斯基,俄语:Лев Давидович Троцкий,1879年11月7日-1940年8月21日)原名“列夫·达维多维奇·布隆施泰因”,曾是蘇聯共產黨中央委員會成員和第四國際领袖,為革命家、军事家、政治理论家和作家等。

列夫·达维多维奇·托洛茨基

早年[编辑] 原名列夫·达维多维奇·布隆施泰因,1879年生于沙俄赫尔松省(属于乌克兰)亚诺夫卡村一个犹太富农家庭。 第十二章 斯大林主義. Nikita Khrushchev. Josip Broz Tito. Josip Broz Tito (born Josip Broz; Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [jɔ̌sip brɔ̂ːz tîtɔ]; Јосип Броз Тито; 7 May 1892[nb 1] – 4 May 1980) was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.[8] During World War II he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe.[9][10] While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian,[11][12][13] Tito was "seen by most as a benevolent dictator"[14] due to his successful economic and diplomatic policies and was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad.[15] Viewed as a unifying symbol,[16] his internal policies successfully maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation.

Josip Broz Tito

He gained international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, working with Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Sukarno of Indonesia.[17] Economism. Economism is reduction of all social facts to economic dimensions.

Economism

The term is often used to criticize economics as an ideology, in which supply and demand are the only important factors in decisions, and outstrip or permit ignoring all other factors. It is believed to be a side effect of neoclassical economics and blind faith in an "invisible hand" or "laissez-faire" means of making decisions, extended far beyond controlled and regulated markets, and used to make political and military decisions. Conventional ethics would play no role in decisions under pure economism, except insofar as supply would be withheld, demand curtailed, by moral choices of individuals.

Thus, critics of economism insist on political and other cultural dimensions in society. Use in Marxism[edit] The term "economism" was used in the Marxist discourse by Lenin in his attacks on Karl Kautsky and the Social Democratic Party of late 18th and early 19th century Germany. Leonid Brezhnev. 第十三章  從當前群眾鬥爭到世界社會主義革命. 第十四章  革命者如何爭取群眾. Anarcho-syndicalism. Anarcho-syndicalism (also referred to as revolutionary syndicalism[1]) is a theory of anarchism which views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and, with that control, influence broader society.

Anarcho-syndicalism

Syndicalists consider their economic theories a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as an alternative co-operative economic system with democratic values and production centered on meeting human needs. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism are solidarity, direct action (action undertaken without the intervention of third parties such as politicians, bureaucrats and arbitrators) and direct democracy, or workers' self-management. The end goal of anarcho-syndicalism is to abolish the wage system, regarding it as wage slavery. Anarcho-syndicalist theory therefore generally focuses on the labor movement.[2] History Origins. Centrism. In politics, centrism or the centre is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy or social inequality; while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.[1] Centre left and centre right politics both involve a general association with centrism combined while leaning somewhat to their respective sides of the spectrum.

Centrism

Definitions[edit] Voters may identify with moderation for a number of reasons: pragmatic, ideological or otherwise. It has even been suggested that individuals vote for 'centrist' parties for purely statistical reasons.[2] Usage by political parties by country[edit] Belgium[edit] 第十五章 無階級社會的來到. 第十六章 唯物辯證法. 第十七章 歷史唯物主義.