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League of Denial: The NFL's Concussion Crisis. Microtubule. BC Online: 9E - Memory and Learning in Aplysis. This page has been compiled from several web pages and is not meant to be a cohesive chapter.

BC Online: 9E - Memory and Learning in Aplysis

For our last class we will listen to a tape of a talk, Remembrance of Things Past, by Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel. He won the 2000 prize in Medicine and Physiology for his study of memory and learning, especially in the sea snail, Aplysia. The information in the following page comes from web links (references) and are threaded together to present the background to the talk we will hear on Monday. Please read this thoroughly so you can be prepared to get the most out of his talk. Eric R. Kandel, MD Research Abstract. The general finding that long-term plasticity and long-term memory recruit transcription in the nucleus, an organelle shared by all synapses of a neuron, has raised a question that we have begun to explore in Aplysia and mice: Are long-term changes cell-wide, or can induced gene products be spatially compartmentalized so that they selectively alter the function of some synapses and not others?

Eric R. Kandel, MD Research Abstract

In mice, we have also explored the molecular mechanisms whereby attention modifies and stabilizes internal representation of space. Persistence of Synaptic Facilitation for Learned Fear in Aplysia In both Aplysia and mice, we have found that long-term synapse-specific plasticity can occur and that this requires a local marking signal.

Gap junction - Wikipedia. A gap junction may also be called a nexus or macula communicans.

Gap junction - Wikipedia

When found in neurons or nerves it may also be called an electrical synapse. While an ephapse has some similarities to a gap junction, by modern definition the two are different. One of the young boys in my family is currently all about dinosaurs (and monster trucks, living up to all little boy traditions).

He is knowledgable enough about them to name the lovely specimen with the incredibly long neck an Apatosaurus, not Brontosaurus, putting his knowledge a caliber above mine at that age. But he may yet be indoctrinated with another of the great dinosaur myths, that each stegosaurus has a second brain in its tail, because even “scientific” documentaries featuring respected researchers get twisted to perpetuate that idea. Perhaps those dinosaur documentary makers are just jealous that the humble octopus turns out to be so much cooler than their great lizards. Your average octopus might not seem like a cognitive juggernaut, especially not in an ocean that also contains dolphins, our favorite frontrunner for animal intelligence. OCTOPUSES & RELATIVES: THE "INTELLIGENT" OCTOPUS.

Octopuses have long been thought to be incapable of using their arms and suckers for manipulative tasks, such as removing a cork stopper from a glass jar to capture a crab inside.


That they occasionally do so was credited to happenstance. At least part of the reason for this is that octopuses seem to lack the proprioceptive ability to assess the positions of their arms in space. Cephalove: A View of the Octopus Brain. In this post, I am going to outline octopus neuroanatomy, to the best of my ability.

Cephalove: A View of the Octopus Brain.

It's a complicated subject that I am only beginning to have a grasp on, but I want to post more about specific research papers regarding cephalopod brains, so I figure I should review this first. Let's get right to it. This figure is from J. Z. Opsin/vitamin A based photopigments in extraretinal photoreceptors — Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences. Non-mammalian vertebrates possess a diverse complement of photoreceptors including the pineal organ, deep encephalic photoreceptors, and dermal/peripheral tissue photoreceptors.

Opsin/vitamin A based photopigments in extraretinal photoreceptors — Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences

Although these photoreceptors were first recognised in the early part of the 19th century, the basis for their photosensitivity remained (and to a degree still remains) poorly understood. My work provided overwhelming evidence that these diverse photoreceptors use broadly conserved mechanisms based upon opsin/vitamin A photopigments. Two of my early Nature papers, summarise these conceptual breakthroughs:


Louis J. Guillette, Jr., Ph.D. - Featured Expert - MUSC. Oligodendrocytes - structure/function. Spinal nerve connections. Cranial nerves anatomy Page 70. Virtual Lab: Tyrannosaurus Rex Brain. Recommended Reading Scientists create detailed map of dinosaur brain, Science, Witmer Lab, Perspectives Advanced Reading.

Virtual Lab: Tyrannosaurus Rex Brain

Superior colliculus - Wikipedia. Opt 662 #15 Retino-Tectal Pathway 2015. Superior colliculus - Wikipedia. Superior colliculus - Wikipedia. 1302 Brain Vesicle DevN - Neuraxis - Wikipedia. The Blood Supply of the Brain and Spinal Cord - Neuroscience - NCBI Bookshelf. Cerebral cortex - Wikipedia. The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals.

Cerebral cortex - Wikipedia

It is divided into two cortices, along the sagittal plane: the left and right cerebral hemispheres divided by the medial longitudinal fissure. The cerebral cortex plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness. The human cerebral cortex is 2 to 4 millimetres (0.079 to 0.157 in) thick.[1] Structure[edit] Layered structure[edit] Cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex - Wikipedia. Paleoencephalon - Wikipedia. In the anatomy of animals, paleoencephalon refers to most regions in the brain that are not part of the neocortex or neoencephalon.

Paleoencephalon - Wikipedia

The paleoencephalon is the phylogenetically oldest part of the animal brain. Paleoenchepheal areas of older species are larger in proportion to overall brain volume as compared to those of mammals. The Paleocortex is a type of thin, primitive cortical tissue that consists of three to five cortical laminae.[1] In comparison, the neocortex has six layers and the archicortex has three or four layers.[2] Allocortex - Wikipedia. The specific regions of the brain usually described as belonging to the allocortex are the olfactory system, and the hippocampus. Allocortex is termed heterogenetic cortex, because during development it never has the six-layered architecture of homogenetic neocortex. It differs from heterotypic cortex, a type of cerebral cortex, which during prenatal development, passes through a six-layered stage to have fewer layers, such as in Brodmann area 4 that lacks granule cells.[2] Structure[edit] The allocortex has just three or four layers of neuronal cell bodies in contrast to the six layers of the neocortex.

Hippocampus - Wikipedia. MRI coronal view of a hippocampus shown in red The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates. Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation.

The hippocampus is located under the cerebral cortex;[1] and in primates it is located in the medial temporal lobe, underneath the cortical surface. It contains two main interlocking parts: the hippocampus proper (also called Ammon's horn)[2] and the dentate gyrus. In rodents as model organisms, the hippocampus has been studied extensively as part of a brain system responsible for spatial memory and navigation. Name[edit] Spinal Cord Injury Levels & Classification. Wise Young, Ph.D., M.D.W. M. Keck Center for Collaborative Neuroscience Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ People with spinal cord injury are often told that they have an injury at a given spinal cord level. Fibroblast growth factors and their receptors in the central nervous system. Nervous Tissue - Structure and Functions of Human Tissue Types. Note: This page is part of the section about the structure and function of different Tissue Types, which is related to the section about Histology and Cells (incl. structure of animal cells, cell division, mitosis, meiosis).

This "Tissue Types" section is included to complete description of the knowledge of "Histology - The Cell" required by some courses in First-Level Anatomy and Physiology. To read about other tissue types see the list of on the left. Nervous tissue consists of two main types of cells: neurons and neuroglia. Nerve cells, or neurones (also written "neurons") transmit nerve impulses that move information around the body. Neuroglia are also known simply as "glia" and have various functions in support of nerve cells but do not transmit nerve impulses themselves. Meninges. Astrocyte - Wikipedia. Gap-43 protein - Wikipedia. Growth Associated Protein 43 also known as GAP43 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GAP43 gene.[3]

Glioma Cell - Cerca con Google. A canine BCAN microdeletion associated with episodic falling syndrome - UCL Discovery. Gill, JL; Tsai, KL; Krey, C; Noorai, RE; Vanbellinghen, JF; Garosi, LS; Shelton, GD; Gill, JL; Tsai, KL; Krey, C; Noorai, RE; Vanbellinghen, JF; Garosi, LS; Shelton, GD; Clark, LA; Harvey, RJ; - view fewer (2012) A canine BCAN microdeletion associated with episodic falling syndrome. Keratan sulfate. Structure[edit] Hearing and auditory system: morawski_pictures. Hearing and auditory system: Markus Morawski. Glycosaminoglycan. Chondroitin sulfate. Chemical structure of one unit in a chondroitin sulfate chain.

Porifera - Nervous System. Sea sponges have the makings of a nervous system. Sea sponges are sedentary organisms that attach themselves to the sea bed and filter nutrients from the water that they force through their porous bodies with flagella. They are the most primitive of all multicellular animals, with just four different types of cells making up partially differentiated tissues in a simply organized body. Because of the lifestyle they lead, sea sponges do not need, and therefore lack, nerve cells, muscle cells and internal organs of any kind. Megakaryocyte. Résultats Google Recherche d'images correspondant à. The Shoichet Lab. Astrogliosis. Causes[edit] Reactive astrogliosis is a spectrum of changes in astrocytes that occur in response to all forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury and disease. Changes due to reactive astrogliosis vary with the severity of the CNS insult along a graduated continuum of progressive alterations in molecular expression, progressive cellular hypertrophy, proliferation and scar formation.[3] Insults to neurons in the central nervous system caused by infection, trauma, ischemia, stroke, autoimmune responses, or other neurodegenerative diseases may cause reactive astrocytes.[2] When the astrogliosis is pathological itself, instead of a normal response to a pathological problem, it is referred to as astrocytopathy. [5] Functions and Effects[edit] Reactive astrocytes may benefit or harm surrounding neural and non-neural cells.

Neural protection and repair[edit] They have also been shown to reduce vasogenic edema after trauma, stroke, or obstructive hydrocephalus.[3] Scar formation[edit] [edit] Human Antatomy & Physiology Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 By Abdul Fellah, Ph.D Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction. - ppt download. [Biogenesis of melanosomes - the chessboard of pigmentation]. Nanoparticles for Neurotherapeutic Drug Delivery in Neurodegenerative Disorders - Brain Neurotrauma - NCBI Bookshelf. Patent US9259419 - Compositions and methods relating to solenopsins and their uses in treating ... - Google Patents. Making the Impossible Probable. Chapter 143. The Spinal Cord: Neural Crest Cells and Myelination - Review of Medical Embryology Book - LifeMap Discovery. THE BRAIN FROM TOP TO BOTTOM. File:1801 The Endocrine System.jpg. Hepatic Nerves - Hepatic Circulation - NCBI Bookshelf.

Spinal Cord - Embryonic Development & Stem Cells - LifeMap Discovery. Neural Crest - Embryonic Development & Stem Cells - LifeMap Discovery. Choroid plexus.