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核廢料問題

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美核廢專家卓鴻年:「一勞永逸」的處置方案仍未成功. 【會後新聞稿】美國國家實驗室核廢專家卓鴻年教授談核廢處置. 李中志:正視核電廠的除役經費問題. 核電廠的生命週期分成三個同等重要的階段:建廠、運轉、除役。

李中志:正視核電廠的除役經費問題

現今主要工業國家的核電廠大部分建於七零年代,也就是說,當初設計的反應爐已逐漸邁入老年,使用年限將 在今後十年紛紛到來。 歐美日幾乎所有生產核電的電力公司都已面臨核電廠除役的迫切問題,因此近年來關於核電的討論,電廠的除役問題成為一個主要重點,不但在技術上比預期的困難,所需的經費也嚴重低估。 反觀我國,在一遍反核聲浪中,討論核電廠的除役經費問題明顯不 成比例,台電與原能會得過且過,還樂得大家都忘了這件事。 所謂請神容易送神難,核電廠一旦運轉,哪怕只有一天試運轉,它就不是一個可以用玩就丟,隨便棄置的怪物。 馬總統以新車必須加油上路才能試車的比喻,來暗示核四勢必插入燃料棒測試,實在無知至極。 核電工業起步之初,歐美同樣在國家與經濟目的的追求下,除役問題也被忽略。 美國原能會 (NRC, Nuclear Regulatory Commission) 為了確保核電廠有足夠的經費進行 除役,根據發表於1978、1980年的兩份研究,設計一套公式推估核電廠除役的大概經費,並要求核電公司成立獨立基金專為除役之用。 美國NRC的公式顯然已經過時,但更大的問題是,任何一個核電廠經過四十年的運轉,經歷的問題千變萬化,而且因廠而 異,造成了各廠除役的獨特性。 根據美國政府問責辦公室 (GAO, Government Accountability Office) 去年提交眾議院的一份報告,目前12個準備除役的反應爐,除役基金與實際估價出現了12億美元的短缺,這還不包括核廢料永久處置的費用。 核廢料政策 躺在抽屜裡(王鐘銘) Nuclear waste poses huge problem. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant crisis taught the world one thing: The danger of nuclear waste is just as serious as having nuclear reactors in operation.

Nuclear waste poses huge problem

Two years after the disaster in Japan, Taiwanese should not only insist that construction of the Fourth Nuclear Power Plant be halted, but that the government should face up to the fact that it is incapable of handling nuclear waste and seriously think about how to solve this intractable problem. The nation needs to come up with concrete and feasible policies for nuclear waste as soon as possible. Environmental impact assessments (EIA) on management policies for radioactive waste are a crucial part of this process. However, the government has been lazy and has overlooked the formulation and assessment of such management policies. After learning in November about the clandestine meeting, these groups attended the next meeting, which erupted into a dispute. 訪查蘭嶼核廢料儲存場報告. 2012.10.17 實地訪查蘭嶼核廢料儲存場 10月17日原能會邀請四位立委前往蘭嶼訪查蘭嶼核廢料儲存場,個人對於訪查結果幾點看法; 1.

訪查蘭嶼核廢料儲存場報告

四位立委建議針對第8, 9號核廢儲存池進行詳細勘查,訪查成員一行於前往第8, 9號核廢池途中即已測得其他核廢儲存池圍阻體外牆有極高的放射線 (蓋氏偵測器測得每一小時達1微西弗放射強度 1 uSv/hour;背景一般於0.1~0.2uSv/hour);於第8號核廢儲存池上方鋼筋水泥圍阻蓋子吊開之前,該核廢儲存池上方已可測得4~5 uSv/hour;當鋼筋水泥圍阻蓋子掀開之後,距離核廢桶4~5公尺遠的高度,可測到30 uSv/hour,顯示儘管這些核廢桶已經放於蘭嶼近30年,這些核廢桶仍然含相當高放射強度的廢料,未來數十年至百年勢必花更多錢以確保這些高危險性核廢料完全不會流失到場外。 2. Radioactive waste. Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material.

Radioactive waste

Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. Radioactivity naturally decays over time, so radioactive waste has to be isolated and confined in appropriate disposal facilities for a sufficient period of time until it no longer poses a hazard.

The period of time waste must be stored depends on the type of waste and radioactive isotopes. It can range from a few days for very short-lived isotopes to millions of years for spent nuclear fuel. The new supplementary ionizing radiation warning symbol launched on 15 February 2007 by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Organization for Standardization. Physics[edit] Radioactive Waste Management. (Updated November 2013) Nuclear power is the only large-scale energy-producing technology which takes full responsibility for all its wastes and fully costs this into the product.The amount of radioactive wastes is very small relative to wastes produced by fossil fuel electricity generation.Used nuclear fuel may be treated as a resource or simply as a waste.Nuclear wastes are neither particularly hazardous nor hard to manage relative to other toxic industrial wastes.Safe methods for the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste are technically proven; the international consensus is that this should be geological disposal.

Radioactive Waste Management

All parts of the nuclear fuel cycle produce some radioactive waste (radwaste) and the relatively modest cost of managing and disposing of this is part of the electricity cost, i.e. it is internalised and paid for by the electricity consumers. At each stage of the fuel cycle there are proven technologies to dispose of the radioactive wastes safely. High cost of nuclear waste. The cost of cleaning up Britain's nuclear waste has increased to almost £48 billion, it was revealed today as the Government unveiled "radical" changes to managing the country's nuclear legacy.

High cost of nuclear waste

A new national body is to be created to ensure that the clean-up, which will take decades to complete, is carried out safely and efficiently. The cost of the programme was estimated at £43 billion last year but it has soared to £47.9 billion. The expenditure will cover the decommissioning and eventual demolition of plant and buildings as well as the processing, storage and disposal of nuclear wastes and any environmental restoration. Annual spending on the clean-up programme is expected to be well over £1 billion in each of the next 10 to 15 years, it was announced today. How much do we spend on nuclear waste? How much do we spend on nuclear decommissioning and waste handling?

How much do we spend on nuclear waste?

According to Decc's 2012/13 budget, taken from its 2012–15 business plan, dealing with "nuclear legacy" issues costs around £2.5 billion a year, more than 42% of Decc's total budget. Of that, around £1.6 billion is spent on managing the various plants and storage facilities at Sellafield, the huge site in Cumbria which is home to the radioactive remains of nuclear weapons and energy programmes dating more than half a century. Sellafield employs 9231 people, according to a new National Audit Office (NAO) report. How much will Sellafield cost going forward? The NAO anticipates the total future costs for decommissioning Sellafield, over a century or so, will be £67 billion. 財團法人核能資訊中心 - 2012年11月10-11日三方共同偵測蘭嶼環境輻射事件始末 - 核能新聞 - 最新消息. 核廢料. 台灣的核廢料問題.