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Author Affiliations Communicated by Louis Sokoloff, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (received for review April 6, 2000) Abstract Local rates of cerebral protein synthesis (lCPS leu ) were measured with the quantitative autoradiographic [1- 14 C]leucine method in a genetic mouse model ( Pah enu2 ) of phenylketonuria. As in the human disease, Pah enu2 mice have a mutation in the gene for phenylalanine hydroxylase. We compared adult homozygous (HMZ) and heterozygous (HTZ) Pah enu2 mice with the background strain (BTBR).
Since July 2007, APA has emphasized using the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) when referencing articles. Unlike URLs which may change over time, the DOI is unique to an individual work. Not all publishers participate in the DOI initiative; as a result, an article may or may not have a DOI assigned. In the 6th edition of the Manual, APA presents a simple approach for referencing online articles:
The History of Neuroscience reveals the field's evolution to present day.
Without Miracles 5 Brain Evolution and Development: The Selection of Neurons and Synapses
The human brain begins forming very early in prenatal life (just three weeks after conception), but in many ways, brain development is a lifelong project. That is because the same events that shape the brain during development are also responsible for storing information—new skills and memories—throughout life. The major difference between brain development in a child versus learning an adult is a matter of degree: the brain is far more impressionable (neuroscientists use the term plastic) in early life than in maturity. This plasticity has both a positive and a negative side. On the positive side, it means that young children's brains are more open to learning and enriching influences. On the negative side, it also means that young children's brains are more vulnerable to developmental problems should their environment prove especially impoverished or un-nurturing.