Narcissistic personality disorder ( NPD ) is a personality disorder [ 1 ] in which the individual is described as being excessively preoccupied with issues of personal adequacy, power , prestige and vanity . This condition affects one percent of the population. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] First formulated in 1968, it was historically called megalomania , and is severe egocentrism . [ edit ] History
Projective identification is a term first used by Melanie Klein (1946) to describe a process whereby parts of the ego are thought of as forced into another person who is then expected to become identified with whatever has been projected. [ 1 ]
Scapegoating (from the verb "to scapegoat ") is the practice of singling out any party for unmerited negative treatment or blame as a scapegoat . [ 1 ] Scapegoating may be conducted by individuals against individuals (e.g. "Hattie Francis did it, not me!")
Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a severely distressing event.
In Freudian psychology , displacement (German Verschiebung , 'shift' or 'move') is an unconscious defense mechanism whereby the mind redirects affects from an object felt to be dangerous or unacceptable to an object felt to be safe or acceptable. [ 1 ] The term originated with Sigmund Freud . [ 2 ] Displacement operates in the mind unconsciously and involves emotions, ideas, or wishes being transferred from their original object to a more acceptable substitute. It is most often used to allay anxiety and can lead to the displacement of aggressive or sexual impulses.
In psychoanalytic theory , when an individual is unable to integrate difficult feelings, specific defenses are mobilized to overcome what the individual perceives as an unbearable situation. The defense that helps in this process is called splitting .
In psychology and logic , rationalization (also known as making excuses [ 1 ] ) is an unconscious defense mechanism in which perceived controversial behaviors or feelings are logically justified and explained in a rational or logical manner in order to avoid any true explanation, and are made consciously tolerable – or even admirable and superior – by plausible means. [ 2 ] Rationalization encourages irrational or unacceptable behavior, motives, or feelings and often involves ad hoc hypothesizing . This process ranges from fully conscious (e.g. to present an external defense against ridicule from others) to mostly subconscious (e.g. to create a block against internal feelings of guilt ).
In psychoanalytic theory , reaction formation is a defensive process ( defense mechanism ) in which anxiety -producing or unacceptable emotions and impulses are mastered by exaggeration ( hypertrophy ) of the directly opposing tendency. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] [ edit ] Theory
In modern psychology , cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort when simultaneously holding two or more conflicting cognitions : ideas, beliefs, values or emotional reactions. In a state of dissonance, people may sometimes feel "disequilibrium": frustration, hunger, dread, guilt, anger, embarrassment, anxiety, etc. [ 1 ] The phrase was coined by Leon Festinger in his 1956 book When Prophecy Fails , which chronicled the followers of a UFO cult as reality clashed with their fervent belief in an impending apocalypse. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Festinger subsequently (1957) published a book called A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance in which he outlines the theory. Cognitive dissonance is one of the most influential and extensively studied theories in social psychology.
Denial , in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true. [ 1 ] The same word, and also abnegation , is used for a psychological defense mechanism postulated by Sigmund Freud , in which a person is faced with a fact that is too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence . [ 2 ] [ 3 ]
In cognitive psychology , cognitive distortions are thoughts that are exaggerated and irrational.
Splitting (also called all-or-nothing thinking in cognitive distortion ) may mean two things: splitting of the mind, and splitting of mental concepts (or black and white thinking ). The latter is thinking purely in extremes (e.g., goodness vs. evil, innocence vs. corruption, victimization vs. oppression, etc.), and can be seen as a developmental stage and as a defense mechanism .
Passive-aggressive behavior is a category of interpersonal interactions characterised by an obstructionist or hostile manner that indicates aggression , or, in more general terms, expressing aggression in non- assertive , subtle (that is, passive or indirect) ways. It can be seen in some cases as a personality trait or disorder marked by a pervasive pattern of negative attitudes and passive, usually disavowed, resistance in interpersonal or occupational situations. Passive-aggressive behavior should not be confused with passive resistance (also called conscientious objection ). In conflict theory passive resistance is a rational response to demands that may simply be disagreed with. Passive-aggressive behavior should also not be confused with covert aggression (a behavior better described as catty ), which consists of deliberate, active, but carefully veiled hostile acts and is distinctively different in character from the non-assertive style of passive aggression. [ 1 ]
In Freudian psychoanalytic theory , defence mechanisms (or defense mechanisms ) are psychological strategies brought into play by the unconscious mind [ 1 ] to manipulate , deny, or distort reality (through processes including, but not limited to, repression , identification , or rationalization ), [ 2 ] and to maintain a socially acceptable self-image or self-schema . [ 3 ] In the book "Psychology", Schacter et.al. enumerated Freud’s daughter discovery about a number of defense mechanisms namely, Rationalization, Reaction formation, Projection, Regression, Displacement, Identification and Sublimation. [ 4 ] Unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats from unacceptable impulses. Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life.