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The thalamus has been thought of as a "relay" that simply forwards signals to the cerebral cortex. Newer research suggests that thalamic function is more selective.The thalamus has multiple functions. It may be thought of as a kind of switchboard of information.

The thalamus plays also a major role in regulating arousal, the level of awareness, and activity. The thalamus also plays an important role in regulating states of sleep and wakefulness. Many different functions are linked to various regions of the thalamus. A major role of the thalamus is devoted to "motor" systems. The thalamus is functionally connected to the hippocampus. Crucial for human episodic memory and rodent event memory. Thalamus fulfills a key function in providing the specific channels from the basal ganglia and cerebellum to the cortical motor areas.

Der Thalamus ist ein der Großhirnrinde vorgeschalteter Filter. Alle eingehenden Informationen werden hier vorverarbeitet, bevor sie der Großhirnrinde zugeführt werden.

Article: Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence. By James W.

This people and their advocates will have killed me, if nobody kills them. – weihler

Prescott From "The Bulletin of The Atomic Scientists", November 1975, pp. 10-20 (Introduction of the article in the "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists":) James W.

Article: Body Pleasure and the Origins of Violence

Prescott, a neuropsychologist, is a health scientist administrator at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in Bethesda, Maryland. Cognitive function on tactile senses. Abstract We have developed a novel tactile presentation system for assessing and training cognitive function on tactile senses.

Cognitive function on tactile senses

The device is operational in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) environment and capable of investigating the underlying neural mechanisms of tactile pattern discrimination. The primary components of the system include a finger movement control unit (FCU), a disk for multiple tactile pattern delivery (DPD), and a force-sensing unit (FSU). Touch and Serotonin.

Quite stable evidence base for touch is increasing serotonin, regulating autonomous body functions and happiness. Reduced SIDS. – weihler

Grammatik der Körpersprache. Wakefulness and Sleep. Electroencephalography is a method of recording the activity of the cortex by means of electrodes placed on the scalp.

Wakefulness and Sleep

In the 1950s, electroencephalography revealed that the cortex is just as active when someone is in REM sleep as when he or she is awake. Scientists hence began referring to REM sleep as “paradoxical sleep”, to call attention to this phenomenon. But with the development of brain imaging technologies in the mid-1990s (follow the Tool module link to the left), researchers discovered other brain structures, many of them located deep below the cortex, whose activity was greatly altered during REM sleep.

In some of these areas, activity increased during REM sleep, while in others, it decreased. But what was remarkable was that this increase or decrease in activity was consistent with the particular kind of dreaming that occurs during REM sleep. Sleep. The amygdala is one of the parts of the brain that is most active during REM sleep, but this state is actually generated deep in the brainstem.


Consciousness smallest bit-player of brain. David Eagleman, neuroscientist at Baylor College of Medicine in Texas and bestselling author It is clear at this point that we are irrevocably tied to the 3lb of strange computational material found within our skulls.

Consciousness smallest bit-player of brain

The brain is utterly alien to us, and yet our personalities, hopes, fears and aspirations all depend on the integrity of this biological tissue. How do we know this? Each Time You Recall An Event, Your Brain Distorts It. 7. Parkinson Symposium Köln. Subliminale Wahrnehmung.

Idee der subliminalen Wahrnehmung erstmals 1888 durch Peirce & Jastrow aufgegriffen. Selbstversuche mit nahezu gleich schweren Gewichten. Später von Sidis (1898) mit Probanten weiter verfolgt. Historisch Problematik der Wahrnehmungsschwelle und kein Nachweis der individuell nicht-bewußten-Wahrnehmung. Hawkins (1970) kommerzieller Versuch mit Coke, Kinowerbung und Durstauslösung. Statistisch nicht gesichert (Störfaktoren). – weihler

Pulvinar, selection and focusing. A mysterious region deep in the human brain could be where we sort through the onslaught of stimuli from the outside world and focus on the information most important to our behavior and survival, Princeton University researchers have found.

Pulvinar, selection and focusing

The researchers report in the journal Science that an area of our brain called the pulvinar regulates communication between clusters of brain cells as our brain focuses on the people and objects that need our attention. Orienting reflex. What distinguishes information processing with conscious awareness from processing occurring without awareness?

Orienting reflex

And, is there any role for conscious awareness in information processing, or is it just a byproduct, like the steam from the chimney of a train engine, which is significant, but has no functional role? These questions -- which have long puzzled psychologists, philosophers, and neurobiologists -- were recently addressed in a study by Hebrew University of Jerusalem researchers and published by the journal Psychological Science. Nonconscious activation of placebo response. Author Affiliations Edited by Tomas G.

Growing evidence suggest that perception and behavior can be triggered by stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness. Responses to thermal pain stimuli were assessed. Group 1: visible conscious cues, Group 2: visible non conscious (masked) cues. Signifficant effects of placebo response in both groups recorded. Responsible mechanisms operate without conscious awareness. Non conscious considered as fundamental feature of human cognition (f.e. reward processing, fear learning and social behavior). Striatum and Amygdala process stimuli before they reach conscious awareness and mediate nonconscious effects on cognition and behavior. Different levels of brain processing with conscious and non conscious stimuli. Conscious effects recruit cortical and subcortical brain regions, unconscious just subcortical one (Amygdala, vStriatum). – weihler


Nonconscious activation of placebo response

Hökfelt, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, and approved August 6, 2012 (received for review February 3, 2012) Abstract The dominant theories of human placebo effects rely on a notion that consciously perceptible cues, such as verbal information or distinct stimuli in classical conditioning, provide signals that activate placebo effects. Placebo and nocebo effects are critical components of medical practice and clinical research. Identification Of Sensory Neurons Critical To Sense Of Touch.

On a molecular level, touch is the most poorly understood of the senses. Researchers identified several specialized sensory neurons, specifically the class II and class III multidentritic neurons. Class III neurons are characterized by narrow spikes on the cells, called filopodia. These dynamic structures protrude from the surface of neurons and function as antennae for cells to probe their environment. Neurons with more filopodia were more sensitive to force, while those with fewer filopodia were less sensitive to force. Given that filopodia are necessary for touch, and their volume determines sensitivity. Genetic analysis was conducted, and found that several ion channel gene families were important in the formation of filopodia. One gene, called the ripped pocket gene, was identified as necessary for gentle touch responses. Discoveries give hints about where to look in the genes to better understand the sense of touch for better treatment of patients with sensory or pain issues. – weihler

11 Powerful Tips to Boost Your Serotonin: Part II of "How Happiness Heals Your Brain" You deserve to be happy.

11 Powerful Tips to Boost Your Serotonin: Part II of "How Happiness Heals Your Brain"

These food and lifestyle tips from Body Ecology founder, Donna Gates, can boost your serotonin and bring more happiness into your life, naturally! In part 1 of this 2-part series, I highlighted the importance of serotonin, “the happiness hormone,” including how your brain makes serotonin. In this piece, I will share tips to boost serotonin naturally, through your food and lifestyle. How The Brain Perceives Direction And Location. The Eagleman Stag. MPI Koeln: PNAS Sep 2012 Matthias Ekman.

Qualität der Vernetzung bestimmter Gehirnareale wichtiger als die Höhe der Aktivität in einzelnen Regionen. – weihler

The Cognitive Revolution.

Stimulus less important than its personal interpretation according to indivudual perspecitve, experience, knowledge, etc. Continuous mental "information processing". – weihler

Cognitive Approach in Psychology. By Saul McLeod published 2007 The term cognitive psychology came into use with the publication of the book Cognitive Psychology by Ulric Neisser in 1967.

Cognitive Approach in Psychology

Cognitive Psychology revolves around the notion that if we want to know what makes people tick then we need to understand the internal processes of their mind. Cognition literally means “knowing”. In other words, psychologists from this approach study cognition which is ‘the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired.’ Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses.

The cognitive perspective applies a nomothetic approach to discover human cognitive processes, but have also adopted idiographic techniques through using case studies (e.g. Typically cognitive psychologists use the laboratory experiment to study behavior. The History of Cognitive Psychology.