Disruptive technology - подрывные технологии
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Massive disruption is coming, and the only question is whether your firm is going to cause it or fall victim to it. Disruption is not easy--either to create or to confront. We have no illusions about that. But in the spirit of helping established firms best serve their customers, we offer seven ways your firm could disrupt its own industry, raising the standards of customer experience and creating new opportunities for growth:
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I am indebted to a reader, Pierre-Alexandre Losson of Brussels-based Telio , who asked me a very interesting question about innovation: “In my opinion all vendors are more or less providing the same toolchain, using the same techniques. What would be in your opinion the next disruptive idea that could or should be pushed in the coming years?” Over the past decade, we have seen some different technologies come and go, and different terminologies applied (I was reminded about application service provision on Tuesday, for example – ASP is hardly mentioned now that SaaS is more widely used and understood). Some of the changes have been slow and strategic. In the construction collaboration context, as I wrote earlier this week , document sharing/collaboration is increasingly a commodity – lots of people provide services in this sector, and the savvy SaaS vendor has applied its industry-specific knowledge to manage particular areas of workflow .
«Подрывные инновации» — это инновации, которые изменяют соотношение ценностей на рынке. При этом старые продукты становятся неконкурентоспособными просто потому, что параметры, на основе которых раньше проходила конкуренция, становятся неважными. Модель «подрывных инноваций» — это теория Клейтона Кристенсена  , которую он впервые ввёл в 1997 году, в своей книге «Дилемма инноватора: Как из-за новых технологий погибают сильные компании» (The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail).  Эту модель можно использовать для описания влияния новых технологий на функционирование фирмы. Клейтон Кристенсен изучал причины, из-за которых крупнейшие компании, мировые лидеры в своей отрасли стремительно теряют свои доминирующие позиции, утрачивают свое первенство, когда на рынке появляются новые технологии.
A paradigm shift (or revolutionary science ) is, according to Thomas Kuhn , in his influential book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962), a change in the basic assumptions, or paradigms , within the ruling theory of science . It is in contrast to his idea of normal science . According to Kuhn, "A paradigm is what members of a scientific community, and they alone, share" ( The Essential Tension , 1977). Unlike a normal scientist, Kuhn held, "a student in the humanities has constantly before him a number of competing and incommensurable solutions to these problems, solutions that he must ultimately examine for himself" ( The Structure of Scientific Revolutions ). Once a paradigm shift is complete, a scientist cannot, for example, reject the germ theory of disease to posit the possibility that miasma causes disease or reject modern physics and optics to posit that ether carries light.
The Internet of Things refers to uniquely identifiable objects [ disambiguation needed ] (things) and their virtual representations in an Internet-like structure. The term Internet of Things was first used by Kevin Ashton in 1999. [ 1 ] The concept of the Internet of Things first became popular through the Auto-ID Center and related market analysts publications. [ 2 ] Radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) is often seen as a prerequisite for the Internet of Things. If all objects and people in daily life were equipped with radio tags, they could be identified and inventoried by computers. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] However, unique identification of things may be achieved through other means such as barcodes or 2D-codes as well.
An example of 3D television 3D television ( 3DTV ) is television that conveys depth perception to the viewer by employing techniques such as stereoscopic display, multi-view display, 2D-plus-depth , or any other form of 3D display . Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system , and some are autostereoscopic without the need of glasses. [ edit ] History The stereoscope was first invented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838. [ 1 ] [ 2 ] It showed that when two pictures are viewed stereoscopically, they are combined by the brain to produce 3D depth perception .
A disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create a new market and value network , and eventually goes on to disrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years or decades), displacing an earlier technology. The term is used in business and technology literature to describe innovations that improve a product or service in ways that the market does not expect, typically first by designing for a different set of consumers in the new market and later by lowering prices in the existing market. In contrast to disruptive innovation, a sustaining innovation does not create new markets or value networks but rather only evolves existing ones with better value , allowing the firms within to compete against each other's sustaining improvements. Sustaining innovations may be either "discontinuous" [ 1 ] (i.e. "transformational" or "revolutionary") or "continuous" (i.e. "evolutionary").