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Science Toys. GC1JMFF Biological Weathering (Earthcache) in Pennsylvania, United States created by rainbowtree. ALL required tasks MUST be completed in order to earn this earthcache.

GC1JMFF Biological Weathering (Earthcache) in Pennsylvania, United States created by rainbowtree

If you submit a log without meeting the requirements, your log will be DELETED. You are welcome to email me for help as needed BEFORE submitting your log. If your log is deleted, please resubmit it when the tasks are completed. Enjoy the journey (learning adventure) as well as the destination (smiley earned). Take only pictures, leave only footprints. To get credit for this Earthcache, please complete the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4.

You do not need to wait for confirmation from me to post your log. The formation of soil happens over an extended period of time, often more than 1000 years. Weathering is the breaking down of rock into smaller fragments. Mechanical weathering breaks apart rocks without changing their chemical composition. How is Soil Formed. Parent Material Parent material is basically the earthen materials that make up the soil.

How is Soil Formed

It can be rocks or volcanic deposits or sediments. The parent material is largely responsible for a soils texture and sometimes a soil’s alkalinity. As this material becomes exposed to the surface they begin to erode and become altered chemically. The type of soil that forms is a result of the available rock, and which minerals are contained within. Climate Climate affects the degree of weathering soil will experience. Topography. Metamorphic rock. Sedimentary rock. Middle Triassic marginal marine sequence of siltstones (below) and limestones (above), Virgin Formation, southwestern Utah, USA Genetic classification Based on the processes responsible for their formation, sedimentary rocks can be subdivided into four groups: clastic sedimentary rocks, biochemical (or biogenic) sedimentary rocks, chemical sedimentary rocks and a fourth category for "other" sedimentary rocks formed by impacts, volcanism, and other minor processes.

Sedimentary rock

List of rock types. Igneous[edit] A sample of andesite (dark groundmass) with amygdaloidal vesicules filled with zeolite.

List of rock types

Diameter of view is 8 cm. Andesite - an Intermediate volcanic rock. Igneous rock. Geological significance[edit] Igneous and metamorphic rocks make up 90–95% of the top 16 km of the Earth's crust by volume.[1] Igneous rocks are geologically important because: their minerals and global chemistry give information about the composition of the mantle, from which some igneous rocks are extracted, and the temperature and pressure conditions that allowed this extraction, and/or of other pre-existing rock that melted;their absolute ages can be obtained from various forms of radiometric dating and thus can be compared to adjacent geological strata, allowing a time sequence of events;their features are usually characteristic of a specific tectonic environment, allowing tectonic reconstitutions (see plate tectonics);in some special circumstances they host important mineral deposits (ores): for example, tungsten, tin, and uranium are commonly associated with granites and diorites, whereas ores of chromium and platinum are commonly associated with gabbros.

Igneous rock

Intrusive[edit] Rock Cycle Board Game rubric - Z2W223: UMNH: Rock Cycle. Summary:Through playing the Rock Cycle Game students will gain an understanding of the cycles that form metamorphic, sedimentary and igneous rocks. Main Curriculum Tie: Science - 4th GradeStandard 3 Objective 1Identify basic properties of minerals and rocks. Materials: EDTEC 670 - Exploratory Learning Through Simulations and Games. The Rock Cycle Race. | Instructional Objective | Learners & Context | Object of Game | Game Materials | | Time Required | Rules | Design Process | References | Learners will be able to identify a variety of factors and processes pertaining to rock formation, rock types, and the rock cycle.

The Rock Cycle Race

The overall instructional goal of The Rock Cycle Race is to provide practice and reinforcement for sixth-grade science students regarding this instructional objective. In the state of California, curriculum frameworks focus on teaching Earth Science at the sixth-grade level ( The learning standards established for sixth-grade students in San Diego City Schools ( is typical for many districts and include developing an understanding of the earth's structure as well as the processes that shape the earth. The Rock Cycle Race supports these standards. Rock cycle. Dimensions of need - The soil. Soil covers most of the land surface of the earth in a thin layer, ranging in thickness from a few centimetres to several metres.

Dimensions of need - The soil

It is composed of inorganic matter (rock and mineral particles), organic matter (decaying plants and animals), living plants and animals (many of them microscopic), water and air. Basically, soil forms as rocks slowly crumble away. Air and water collect between the particles, and chemical changes occur. Plants take root, binding the particles together, shielding the surface from the elements, drawing up minerals from lower layers and attracting animal life. Bacteria and fungi break down plant and animal remains into fertile humus. The speed of this process varies. Fertile soils teem with life.

To grow, plants need nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and a range of other elements. Organic matter maintains the soil structure. As agriculture has become more intensive and extensive, mineral fertilizer use has increased. Soil ecology. -- home -- environment -- issues -- Rev 20051121,20060712,20070211, The situation on the ground fares much better with about 15kg carbon for forests and 3kg for grassland.

Soil ecology

But the animal content is very small, amounting to only 50mg per square metre. By comparison, the soil contains most carbon, at 10kg. It is thus important for farmers to realise that their main concern should be with the life in the soil. Rockhounding Arkansas, table of contents. Collecting Rocks. By Rachel M.

Collecting Rocks

Barker Rocks Tell the Story of the Earth The Earth is made of rock, from the tallest mountains to the floor of the deepest ocean. Making Boxes for your Rock and Mineral Collection. Show off your collection with these deluxe display boxes A Rock Box template (right click on this link, then Save Target As to a folder of your choice) can be used to make attractive boxes with room for labels for a thumbnail sized collection of rocks and minerals.

Making Boxes for your Rock and Mineral Collection

The boxes are 1.5 x 1.25 inches, and are 1.6 inches high in the back. The boxes are easy to pick up, and labels can include a lot information about the rock or mineral. We used MS Paint, which comes with all versions of Windows, to print the labels (look under Programs, then Accessories ). 100 Best (Free) Science Documentaries Online. No matter how much you know, there is always something new to learn about science. While your college courses may cover the basics, you can get a more in-depth look at a wide variety of topics from Internet resources such as these great documentaries. These selections will help you explore everything from the inner reaches of the human mind to the outer areas of our universe and just about everything else in between.

Better yet, they’re all free to watch online so you can learn more without spending a dime. Health and Medicine These documentaries cover topics like health care, diseases, nutrition, nursing, and more so you can get great insights into health and medicine. Super Size Me: In this movie, filmmaker Morgan Spurlock attempts to subsist on only a diet of McDonald’s for a full month. Drugs. Science. News Science Articles 5. Free online revision guides to help you pass your GCSE and A-Level exams.


Elements. College Planetarium Website.