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世界文学名著在线阅读. 【英国】 《呼啸山庄》 ……………………………………………艾米莉·勃朗特 《大卫·科波菲尔》 ……………………………………查尔斯·狄更斯 《双城记》 ………………………………………………查尔斯·狄更斯 《雾都孤儿》 ……………………………………………查尔斯·狄更斯 《鲁滨孙漂流记》 …………………………………………丹尼尔·笛福 《傲慢与偏见》 ………………………………………………简·奥斯汀 《理智与情感》 ………………………………………………简·奥斯汀 《德伯家的苔丝》 …………………………………………托马斯·哈代 《简·爱》 ………………………………………………夏洛蒂·勃朗特 【法国】 《邦斯舅舅》 ……………………………………………………巴尔扎克 《贝姨》 …………………………………………………………巴尔扎克 《高老头》 ………………………………………………………巴尔扎克 《幻灭》 …………………………………………………………巴尔扎克 《交际花盛衰记》 ………………………………………………巴尔扎克 《欧叶妮·格朗台》 ……………………………………………巴尔扎克 《幽谷百合》 ……………………………………………………巴尔扎克 《基督山伯爵》 ……………………………………………………大仲马 《包法利夫人》 ……………………………………………………福楼拜 《约翰·克里斯朵夫》 ………………………………………罗曼·罗兰 《追忆似水年华》 ……………………………………马塞尔·普鲁斯特 《漂亮朋友》 ………………………………………………………莫泊桑 《红与黑》 …………………………………………………………司汤达 《局外人》 …………………………………………………阿尔贝·加缪 【俄国 苏联】 《母亲》 ……………………………………………………………高尔基 《童年》 ……………………………………………………………高尔基 《在人间》 …………………………………………………………高尔基 《我的大学》 ………………………………………………………高尔基 《钢铁是怎样炼成的》 …………………………………奥斯特洛夫斯基 《日瓦戈医生》 ……………………………………………帕斯捷尔纳克 《罪与罚》 ………………………………………………陀思妥耶夫斯基 【美国】 《老人与海》 ………………………………………………………海明威 【其他国家】 {*style:<b>说明:

Postmodernism. Literary1. Literature constantly evolves as new movements emerge to speak to the concerns of different groups of people and historical periods.

literary1

Absurd, literature of the (c. 1930–1970): A movement, primarily in the theater, that responded to the seeming illogicality and purposelessness of human life in works marked by a lack of clear narrative, understandable psychological motives, or emotional catharsis. Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot is one of the most celebrated works in the theater of the absurd. Aestheticism (c. 1835–1910): A late-19th-century movement that believed in art as an end in itself. Aesthetes such as Oscar Wilde and Walter Pater rejected the view that art had to posses a higher moral or political value and believed instead in “art for art’s sake.”

Angry Young Men (1950s–1980s): A group of male British writers who created visceral plays and fiction at odds with the political establishment and a self-satisfied middle class. Literary theory2. Literary theory and literary criticism are interpretive tools that help us think more deeply and insightfully about the literature that we read.

literary theory2

Over time, different schools of literary criticism have developed, each with its own approaches to the act of reading. Schools of Interpretation Cambridge School (1920s–1930s): A group of scholars at Cambridge University who rejected historical and biographical analysis of texts in favor of close readings of the texts themselves. Chicago School (1950s): A group, formed at the University of Chicago in the 1950s, that drew on Aristotle’s distinctions between the various elements within a narrative to analyze the relation between form and structure.

Critics and Criticisms: Ancient and Modern (1952) is the major work of the Chicago School. Deconstruction (1967–present): A philosophical approach to reading, first advanced by Jacques Derrida that attacks the assumption that a text has a single, stable meaning. Literary Terms and Theories. Full text books free to read online in the full text archive. 100 best first lines from novels. Following is a list of the 100 best first lines from novels, as decided by the American Book Review, a nonprofit journal published at the Unit for Contemporary Literature at Illinois State University: 1. Call me Ishmael. - Herman Melville, Moby-Dick (1851) 2. It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife. - Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (1813) 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. riverrun, past Eve and Adam's, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs. - James Joyce, Finnegans Wake (1939) 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 124 was spiteful. - Toni Morrison, Beloved (1987)