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A real influenza virion [Image courtesy Edward Hutchinson] Influenza is a seasonal disease we are all familiar with. Most of us have experienced the misery of being cooped up in bed with a streaming nose, aching joints and temperature now and again. However sometimes influenza can cause serious complications, particularly in the elderly, occasionally leading to death. And this year's swine flu pandemic, thankfully with fewer deaths than expected, has given us an inkling of just how dangerous influenza could be.
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By Marlene Vinzenz, Jan Mueller, and Vic Small, IMBA, Austria Cell motility is driven by coordinated actin polymerization at the cell's leading edge. However, it is still fiercely debated exactly how actin generates force to move a cell. The fine structure of filaments revealed by electron microscopy is exquisitely sensitive to the preparative methods used, and thus, various models have been proposed.
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In the previous sections, we described mechanisms of humoral immunity. In this section we will discuss how T cells recognize foreign antigens and mount a response against them. Naïve T cells and their effector products make up the second branch of the adaptive immune system: cell-mediatd immunity. (Remember, B cells and their products make up the first branch: humoral immunity.) Learning about T cells tends to feel less straightforward than learning about B cells—it can be a frustrating alphabet soup of terms, (CD, MHC, HLA…) so before we get started, it is worth taking some time to define the different types of T cells and the receptors on each.
MSI: Multiscale Systems Immunology MSI is an ongoing project aimed at the development of software for the computational simulation of spatial processes in immunity. The software is an open source development project; there are several options for acquiring the program, including the complete source code, or just pre-built binaries. The simulation software itself is currently available for Ubuntu Linux only, but the visualization code and analysis tools are available for Ubuntu, Windows, and Mac.
I always used to believe that it would be impossible for two planes to crash into each other. I didn't think of it in terms of technology as sonar and navigation systems are advanced enough to avoid that. I simply believed that the sky was too big and vast for two planes to even come close to each other on route to their destinations. This belief of mine came to a screeching halt when I discovered the art of Aaron Koblin . The picture above shows the flight patterns and air traffic over all the flights in North America. Aaron colors and forms these patterns in order to make interesting designs and prints, which are available for purchase .
Introduction The immune system is one of nature's more fascinating inventions. With ease, it protects us against billions of bacteria, viruses, and other parasites.
In his first six years on the faculty, Peter P. Lee, MD , had devoted most of his time to research on the role of the immune system in melanoma and leukemia, with some HIV studies on the side. He had only recently turned his attention to breast cancer on the day in the spring of 2005, when he saw a flyer announcing a $4 million grant for breast cancer research.
Citation: Kleinstein SH (2008) Getting Started in Computational Immunology. PLoS Comput Biol 4(8): e1000128. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000128 Editor: Olga Troyanskaya, Princeton University, United States of America
Laboratory of Peter P. Lee - Research - Hematology - Department of Medicine - Stanford University School of HematologyLaboratory focus: Studying the interplay between T cells and cancer The immunotherapy of cancer holds promise of a new treatment modality which may be more specific and potentially less toxic than radiation and chemotherapy. To reach this elusive goal, we need a thorough understanding of the interactions between the immune system and cancer, and why the immune response fails to control cancer in the first place.
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