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European Impact on Indigenous Australians

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Explainer: What was the Myall Creek Massacre? On the 10 June 1838, eleven stockmen lead by squatter John Fleming arrived at the Myall Creck station.

Explainer: What was the Myall Creek Massacre?

Near the station huts, approximately 35 Wirrayaraay people of the Kamilaroi nation were camping. Many of them were well-known on the local stations and had been given English names such as ‘Sandy’ and ‘Daddy’. They had been invited there by Charles Kilmeister, a convict stockman, after they were forced to move away from another station for their safety. Reconciliation is going to work if we give it a chance.

Analysis Posted My father is an old man now — he walks slowly, he is bowed a little and his once supple limbs have stiffened.

Reconciliation is going to work if we give it a chance

He has softened too; he has relaxed as he has aged. But once he wore his body like armour. Theconversation. The Third National Indigenous Art Triennial: Defying Empire at the National Gallery of Australia would have been unimaginable 50 years ago.


Despite the widespread goodwill towards Aboriginal people in 1967, there was little recognition that they had a living visual culture. Those few curators, such as the late Tony Tuckson, who admired the aesthetic qualities of the intricate forms made by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people living in remote areas of the north, rejected as kitsch works by artists such as Albert Namatjira who incorporated western traditions. For the last three decades, Indigenous artists working in non-traditional media have made their mark, including at the two preceding National Indigenous Art Triennials and at national and international art exhibitions – including the Venice Biennale. It is not news to say that some of Australia’s most admired artists are Indigenous, so why is Defying Empire such a satisfying exhibition? It all comes back to that year, 1967.

Lest we forget: why we need to remember the Frontier Wars. The Frontier Wars were ultimately fought for the possession of land and the exercise of sovereignty.

Lest we forget: why we need to remember the Frontier Wars

One reason Australians find it difficult to acknowledge the war is because it goes to the very heart of the foundations of Australian sovereignty and ownership of this great land. Conveniently, in an effort to avoid those fundamental questions, the traditional historical narrative has played down the scale and extent of frontier warfare, at times denying that it took place altogether. Australia’s culture of forgetfulness has its roots in about the 1920’s or 1930’s, when writers on Australian history began arguing that this country was peacefully settled without the experience of war within its own borders. However, overwhelming evidence shows that the conditions under which this country was 'settled' were far from peaceful. Tasmania's Black War: a tragic case of lest we remember?

Tasmania’s Black War (1824-31) was the most intense frontier conflict in Australia’s history.

Tasmania's Black War: a tragic case of lest we remember?

Explainer: The Appin Massacre. On April 9, 1816, Macquarie ordered three regiments to lead a military expedition ‘with secrecy and despatch’ against the ‘hostile natives’ in the Nepean Region.

Explainer: The Appin Massacre

A list of those who were wanted in relation to violence was provided to each, however all Aboriginal people encountered were to be made ‘prisoners of war’. ‘On any occasion of seeing or falling in with the Natives, either in bodies or singly, they are to be called on, by your friendly Native Guides, to surrender themselves to you as Prisoners of War. Indigenous cultures and contact history. Classroom resource This free classroom resource supports teaching and learning about Indigenous history and culture.

Indigenous cultures and contact history

It is based on the powerful stories shared by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in the Encounters exhibition. Curriculum links. ABC Online Indigenous - Special Topics - The Apology. The Victorian Government has apologised to Neville Austin, 47, for being taken away from his mother at the age of 15 months.

ABC Online Indigenous - Special Topics - The Apology

National Sorry Day has been commemorated in ceremonies and get-togethers across Western Australia. An Eastern Goldfields' health centre is expected to receive funding when Prime Minister Kevin Rudd announces $9 million to improve health services for Indigenous mothers and babies. Mal Brough has criticised both sides of politics over the latest report on Indigenous living conditions. Australia's Secret History as a White Utopia. South Seas - Voyaging and Cross-Cultural Encounters in the Pacific. 1800s : Pemulwuy. Pemulwuy (1750–1802) was a Bidjigal man from the Botany Bay area who led the Eora nation's resistance to European expansion into Eora lands.

1800s : Pemulwuy

1790s : Indigenous resistance. Governor Arthur Phillip (1738–1814) opposed the settlement of the Hawkesbury region.

1790s : Indigenous resistance

In his opinion the area was too isolated and too little known. Instead he found the Parramatta region ideally suited to the colony's needs because of its good soil, ready accessibility and proximity to water. Phillip moved many convicts to Parramatta after he realised Sydney was unsuitable for agricultural purposes. 1780s : Smallpox epidemic. 1780s : Cultural differences. On 26 January 1788, the British government through Governor Arthur Phillip (1738–1814) claimed sovereignty over the area that Captain James Cook had named New South Wales. 1770s. In this decade, Indigenous peoples had rich and complex lifestyles revolving around the land and based on hunting and gathering food and water. They crafted a range of technologies such as shelters, tools, baskets, weapons and vessels for obtaining and carrying food and water. Groups traded with each other for important metals, clays and foodstuffs not available in their own countries.

Each group passed their culture, language and beliefs from one generation to the next. Eora: Aboriginal Sydney. Eora: Aboriginal Sydney, 1770 - 1850, offers an insight into Sydney and the local indigenous community in the years following the arrival of the Bèerewalgal, 'people from the clouds', in 1788. United by a common language, strong ties of kinship, and a rich saltwater economy, the indigenous inhabitants survived as skilled hunter-fisher-gatherers in family groups or clans scattered along the coast. They identified themselves as Eora (yura), simply meaning 'People', a word derived from Ee 'yes' and ora 'here' or 'this place', revealing their deep connection to the land.

Indigenous Australia Timeline - 1500 to 1900. A timeline of events relating to Indigenous Australians from the time of contact with Indonesian trepang fishermen c.1500-1700 until 1900. Aboriginal bark painting, Arnhem Land Photographer: Stuart Humphreys © Australian Museum Indonesian trepang fishermen visit northern Australia.