Chemical Weathering Processes. A group of weathering processes viz; solution, carbonation, hydration, oxidation, and reduction act on the rocks to decompose, dissolve or reduce them to a fine clastic state through chemical reactions by oxygen, surface and/or soil water and other acids.
When something is dissolved in water or acids, the water or acid with dissolved contents is called solution. This process involves removal of solids in solution and depends upon solubility of a mineral in water or weak acids. Carbonation is the reaction of carbonate and bicarbonate with minerals and is a common process helping the breaking down of feldspars and carbonate minerals. Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and soil air is absorbed by water, to form carbonic acid that acts as a weak acid. Factors Determining the Climate of India. Latitude: The Tropic of Cancer passes through the central part of India in the east west direction.
Thus, the northern part of India lies in the sub-tropical and temperate zone and the part lying south of the Tropic of Cancer falls in the tropical zone. Denudation. The process of wearing away the earth causes a general lowering and leveling out of the surface.
This process is called denudation and is carried out in 4 phases: o Weathering: Gradual disintegration of rocks by atmospheric or weather forces. o Erosion: Active wearing away of earth’s surface by moving agents like water, wind, glaciers, etc. o Transportation: Removal of eroded debris to new positions. Plate Tectonic Theory. A plate is a rigid lithospheric slab in the earth surface.
If two tectonic plates collide, they form a convergent plate boundary. Usually, one of the converging plates will move beneath the other, which is known as subduction. Deep trenches are often formed where tectonic plates are being subducted and earthquakes are common. Metamorphic Rocks. The word metamorphic means ‘change of form’.
These rocks form under the action of Pressure, Volume, and Temperature (PVT) change. Metamorphism occurs when rocks are forced down to lower levels by tectonic processes or when molten magma rising through the crust comes in contact with the crustal rocks or the underlying rocks are subjected to great amounts of pressure by overlying rocks. Metamorphism is a process by which already consolidated rocks undergo recrystallization and reorganization of materials within original rocks. Gradation. Continental Drift Theory. Alfred Wegener, a German meteorologist, proposed the “Continental Drift Theory” in 1912.
This was regarding the distribution of the oceans and the continents. According to Wegener, all the continents formed a single continental mass, a mega ocean surrounded by the same. The supercontinent was named PANGAEA, meaning all earth. The Course of a River. This begins at the source of the river near the water shed, which is probably the crest of a mountain range.
The river is very swift as it descends the steep slopes, and the predominant action of the river is vertical corrasion. The valley developed is thus deep, narrow and distinctively V-shaped. Down- cutting takes place so rapidly that lateral corrasion cannot keep pace. LANDFORMS IN DESERTS. LANDFORMS OF HIGHLAND GLACIATION. WEATHERING PROCESS. CONVECTION CURRENT THEORY. AMARKANTAK PLATEAU RIVERS. IMPORTANT PASSES IN INDIA. MASS MOVEMENTS. PHYSIOGRAPHIC DIVISIONS OF THE HIMALAYAS. NORTH INDIAN PLAINS. SOLSTICE. EVOLUTION OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE. WEST FLOWING RIVERS. Landforms in Deserts. Landforms of Highland Glaciation. The downslope movement of a glacier from its snow-covered valley-head and the intensive shattering of the upland slopes tend to produce a depression where the firm or neve accumulates.
The process of plucking deepens the depression into a steep, horse-shoe-shaped basin called a cirque (in French). It is also known as a corries in Scotland and a cwm in Wales. When two corries cut back on opposite sides of a mountain, knife-edged ridges are formed called aretes. Where three or more cirques cut back together, their ultimate recession will form an angular horn or pyramidal peak. Weathering Process. Weathering is the breaking down or dissolving of rocks and minerals on Earth’s surface.
Water, ice, acids, salt, plants, animals, and changes in temperature are all agents of weathering. Weathering processes are responsible for formation of not only regolith and soils, but also erosion and mass movements. As very little or no motion of materials takes place in weathering, it is an in-situ or on-site process. Convection Current Theory. Though Alfred Wegener’s Continental Drift was being rejected, Arthur Holmes elaborated one of the Wegner’s hypotheses that the mantle undergoes thermal convection.
This idea is based on the fact that as a substance is heated its density decreases and rises to the surface until it is cooled and sinks again. This repeated heating and cooling results in a current which may be enough to cause continents to move. Initially not accepted, but Harry Hess (1962) published on the Mantle convection current or “sea floor spreading”. This idea was basically the same as that proposed by Holmes over 30 years earlier. Amarkantak Plateau Rivers. The Narmada originates on the western flank of the Amarkantak plateau at a height of about 1,057 m. It is the largest west flowing river of Peninsular India. Flowing in a rift valley between the Satpura in the south and the Vindhyan range in the north, it forms a picturesque gorge in marble rocks and Dhuandhar waterfall near Jabalpur. Its valley is a depressed block of the Earth’s crust bordered by parallel faults.
After flowing a distance of about 1,312 km, it meets the Arabian sea south of Bharuch, forming a broad 27 km long estuary. Important Passes in India. O Jelep La Pass- This pass passes through the Chumbi valley. It connects Sikkim with Lhasa, the capital of Tibet. o Chang-La - It is a high mountain pass in the Greater Himalayas. It connects Ladakh with Tibet. o Sela Pass – It is in Arunachal Pradesh. THE IGNORANT MIND. INTEGRITY PACTS. SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY. ACCOUNTABILITY AND RESPONSIBILITY. CLONING AND ETHICAL ISSUES. EARLY RETIREMENT OF IAS, IPS, OTHER OFFICERS OF DOUBTFUL HONESTY. ETHICS AND CLIMATE CHANGE. RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT (2005) TO KNOW, IS TO KNOW THAT YOU KNOW NOTHING. INTEGRAL HUMANISM. Mass Movements. Physiographic Divisions of the Himalayas. North Indian Plains. The Great North Indian plains are homogeneous surfaces with an invisible slope.
Solstice. On 21st June, the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. Evolution of Earth’s Atmosphere. West Flowing Rivers. The Ignorant Mind. Greed, anger and delusion are said to be the three poisons in Buddhism. Greed represents our selfishness, our misplaced desire to possess things beyond our control, our constant yearning to amass more and more, thinking it will bring us happiness and contentment which does not come. Anger is our annoyance towards people and circumstances. Integrity Pacts. Social Accountability. World Bank defines social accountability as an approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and/or civil society organizations who participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability.
It involves the stakeholders like citizens, civil society, NGOs and others at various levels who engage in monitoring or evaluating a particular project, programme or policy, share control over the resources, provide feedback and take corrective actions when needed. Cloning And Ethical Issues. A clone is an exact genetic copy of a molecule, cell, plant, or animal. Animal cloning has been done successfully in laboratories since the 1990s. Dolly, a female domestic sheep was the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell. Accountability And Responsibility. ASSASSINATION OF INDIRA GANDHI. CAUSES OF THE FALL OF THE MAURYA EMPIRE. SPACE TECHNOLOGY IN BORDER MANAGEMENT. WHAT IS SPACE DIPLOMACY?
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. AUGMENTED REALITY AND VIRTUAL REALITY. INTERNET OF THINGS. MANUFACTURING OF DEFENCE IN INDIA. DISABILITY AND RTE: UNESCO REPORT. DISINFECTION OF WATER. SOCIAL JUSTICE. CENTRAL DRUG STANDARD CONTROL ORGANIZATION (CDSCO) HEALTHCARE ORGANIZATIONS’ PLATFORM FOR ENTRY-LEVEL-CERTIFICATION (HOPE) PORTAL. SKILLS ACQUISITION AND KNOWLEDGE AWARENESS FOR LIVELIHOOD(SANKALP) WHAT IS COMMUNITY RADIO? MGNREGA ACT, 2005. PACT TO END BRU REFUGEE CRISIS. INDIA'S RURAL EDUCATION: AN OUTLINE. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. CHILDRENS INFECTIOUS DISEASES. To Know, Is To Know That You Know Nothing. To know is to know nothing - may sound paradoxical. After all, how can one know if things are unknowable? Concept of knowledge is widely discussed but little understood.
At one level, it is having more information. Then comes the understanding of that information. Socrates go beyond these and point to an aspect where knowledge brings modest about one's self and the limitations of self and human beings. In the present context, Socrates has great relevance. As source of scientific temperament and intellectual skepticism - We live in an era of rapid scientific and technological progress. For humility in human behaviour - Knowledge can be a source of great modesty, but can also be a source for great arrogance too. For tolerance and mutual respect - Today, we find intellectual fisticuffs in social media and news regularly.
Social perspective, against elitism and inequality - Educational resources are not equally distributed. Right To Information Act (2005) Ethics And Climate Change. Early Retirement of IAS, IPS, Other Officers of Doubtful Honesty. The Ignorant Mind. Integral Humanism. Artificial Intelligence. Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality. Internet of Things. Manufacturing of Defence in India. Space Technology in Border Management. What is Space Diplomacy?