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Fic_download. OnLine Lessons on Scientific Writing. Argument Papers. Summary: This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience. Contributors:Allen BrizeeLast Edited: 2013-03-01 08:01:53 Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper.

In a general way, Restate your topic and why it is important,Restate your thesis/claim,Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,Call for action or overview future research possibilities. Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers: Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).Tell them (body).Tell them what you told them (conclusion). How to Write Guide: Sections of the Paper. | Table of Contents | FAQs | PDF Version | | Rationale | Sections | Section Headings | Title | Authors and Affiliation | Abstract| Introduction| Methods| Results| Discussion | Acknowledgments| Literature Cited | Appendices Why a Scientific Format?

The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels.

For example, many people skim Titles to find out what information is available on a subject. Others may read only titles and Abstracts. Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results, and so on. Top of Page RESULTS 1. 3. NOTE: Do not label this section "Bibliography". 2. Lesson 3: Scientific Writing Resource - Duke University. Length and complexity alone don't make a sentence difficult to understand: some long sentences are perfectly understandable, and specialized terms may be necessary to explain complex problems. Sometimes short sentences with simple words are more difficult to follow because of the way they are written. It follows that structure of the sentence may be more important than length or complexity. However, scientific writers sometimes needlessly inflate their writing in length and complexity in an effort to "sound scientific" or convey intelligence.

In truth, it takes a deeper understanding to explain a complex topic simply and succinctly. It was best put by Shakespeare: "Brevity is the soul of wit. " The best scientists can communicate complicated results to intelligent readers outside their field. This lesson will give you some techniques for keeping your writing brief. Principles: Principle 1: Omit needless words Ineffectual Phrases Examples: Wordy Phrases Does it matter? Revision Technique.

Paper how to. Essay Writing | English for Uni. Here is the final version of the chocolate essay. You can also download it as a pdf document. “Chocolate is a healthy food.” Discuss. Since Spanish explorers brought back chocolate from the new world, chocolate consumption has become a worldwide phenomenon. At first, chocolate, a derivative of the cacao bean, was consumed as a drink, only later achieving mass popularity in tablet or bar form. However, chocolate’s inherent popularity does not equate to it possessing healthy properties, as suggested by the title. The realities of chocolate are more down to earth; a number of these realities will be addressed in this essay. Consumption of chocolate is something that many enjoy, and there is evidence (Parker, Parker, & Brotchie, 2006) that high carbohydrate foods such as chocolate do have a ‘feel good’ effect. Another possible positive influence of chocolate is upon cardiovascular health. Obesity and chocolate consumption seemingly have no proven correlations.

(Word count: 1087. References. Academic Study Skills Support. The Learning Centre wants you to make the most of your university studies. Here you will find resources and support to help you develop and refine your academic skills. Self-help guides to referencing, writing reports, grammar and more. Referencing assignmentsLearn how to reference your assignments using different styles such as Harvard referencing.PlagiarismDiscover what you need to know and how to avoid plagiarism.Writing skillsGuides for grammar, essay and assignment writing, postgraduate writing and more.Critical thinking This guide introduces the idea of critical thinking for university study.Reading and note-taking Lengthy reading lists can be frightening.

Attend one of our workshops to develop your study, writing and conversation skills. See upcoming Workshops and Courses orRegister by logging in to the workshop Booking System. Contact the Learning Centre. Academic Style | The Writing Centre. How to write a paper : authors & referees @ npg. Before writing a paper, authors are advised to visit the author information pages of the journal to which they wish to submit (see this link for a full list of NPG publications). Each journal has slightly different format requirements depending on readership, space, style and so on. The journal's website will contain detailed information about format, length limits, figure preparation, and similar matters. If your questions are not answered on these pages or through our recommended guidelines below, we suggest you contact the journal’s editorial office for further guidance before submitting.

Contact information for the editorial offices can be found on the journal websites. We also strongly recommend that authors read a few issues of the journal to which they wish to submit, to obtain a sense of the level, length and readership of the journal. Nature journals are international, so in writing a paper, authors should consider those readers for whom English is a second language. Academic reading & writing | English Online France. Constructing the Paragraph A Tutorial and Self-testing Program for American English in Academic Settings It is recommended that you try each Self-test first. If you have trouble understanding the content, or receive a score of less than 75%, go to the related Tutorial, and then try the Self-test again. You can do the Self-tests and Tutorials in any order, but it makes sense to do them in the order suggested below.

You will find a link back to this page at the end of each Self-test and Tutorial. You will receive a score for each Self-test. Remember: If you have less than 75% on any Self-test, you should probably do the related Tutorial and then try the self-test again. TOPIC SENTENCES – testTOPIC SENTENCES – tutorialTOPICS AND COMMENTS – testTOPICS AND COMMENTS – tutorialSUPPORT SENTENCES – testSUPPORT SENTENCES – tutorialUSING TRANSITIONS – testUSING TRANSITIONS – tutorialORDERING PRINCIPLES – testORDERING PRINCIPLES – tutorial Put the sentences/paragraphs of the abstract in order. Academic Phrasebank. Writing for a Purpose.

AcademicWritingHandbook. WRiSE - Report Writing. iWrite - Information Structure and Grammar. University of Oxford Style Guide. Special Cases in Subject Verb Agreement | Style for Students Online. Effective Writing for Scholarly Work. Writing Abstracts: An Overview. An Introduction to Cohesion in Academic Writing. Evaluative language in discussion sections of doctoral theses: Similarities and differences between L1 Chinese and L1 English writers. A School of International Studies, University of International Business and Economics, Beijing, Chinab Centre for Applied Linguistics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Received 18 May 2015, Revised 15 December 2015, Accepted 3 January 2016, Available online 13 February 2016 Choose an option to locate/access this article: Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution Check access Get rights and content Highlights A corpus of doctoral thesis discussion sections was constructed.

The corpus was annotated for Appraisal – Engagement features. Features associated with the communicative purpose of the genre are discussed. L1 Chinese and L1 English writers showed similar evaluative language patterns. A genre-specific feature of Appraisal – Engagement is proposed. Abstract Keywords Evaluation; Appraisal; Academic writing; Corpus-based research; Corpus annotation; Contrastive rhetoric © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Technical-writing-purpose-and-principles. Heat. [1406.1525] Backreaction of Hawking Radiation on a Gravitationally Collapsing Star I: Black Holes? Because of and due to. The word pairs “because of” and “due to” are not interchangeable. The reason they are not is that they “grew up” differently in the language. “Because of” grew up as an adverb; “due to” grew up as an adjective. Remember that adjectives modify only nouns or pronouns, whereas adverbs usually modify verbs. (The fact that adverbs occasionally modify other adverbs or even adjectives and entire phrases is not relevant to this particular discussion.) To be more precise, with their attendant words, “due to” and “because of” operate as adjectival and adverbial prepositional phrases.

To understand how the functions of “due to” and “because of” vary, look at these sentences. 1. 2. In sentence #1, his is a possessive pronoun that modifies the noun defeat. OK, how well do you know it? Word Usage Scientific Writing. Lesson 3: Scientific Writing Resource - Duke University. Summarizing & Critiquing - Technical English - ESLI-595 - LibGuides at New York Institute of Technology.

How to Write A Paper in Scientific Journal Style and Format: Table of Contents - Bates College. The Science of Scientific Writing. "The Science of Scientific Writing" is a thoroughly detailed and important article about scientific writing from the journal American Scientist. You will find practical advice on how (literally) to put sentences together and walk along with the authors as they methodically generate seven practical maxims for good science writing.

In the article, the authors, George D. Gopen and Judith A. Swan, develop seven maxims that will aid you as you write and revise your work. To open the article "The Science of Scientific Writing" within this page, click here. "The Science of Scientific Writing," by George D. This article, downloaded from Style for Students Online, originally appeared in American Scientist, journal of Sigma Xi, copyright © 1990 by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society.

Science is often hard to read. The fundamental purpose of scientific discourse is not the mere presentation of information and thought, but rather its actual communication. Subject-Verb Separation Bibliography. Forest carbon calculators: A review for managers, policymakers and educators. You are using an outdated version of Firefox which is not supported by ResearchGate anymore. For a faster, safer browsing experience, upgrade your browser now. <div class="c-box-warning full-width-element" style="text-align: center; "><div style="margin: auto; padding:10px;" class="container"><b>For full functionality of ResearchGate it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Here are the <a href=" rel="nofollow" target="_blank"> instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser</a>. </b></div></div> Article Forest carbon calculators: A review for managers, policymakers and educators 03/2016; 114(2):134-143.

Forests play a critical role sequestering atmospheric carbon dioxide, partially offsetting greenhouse gas emissions and thereby mitigating climate change. [more] Figures in this publication Discover the world's research 100 million publications 2.5 million new publications each month 9 million members Join for free 7 Followers 115 Reads View Available from. "A Scarlet Letter Written in Permanent Digital Ink: How New Jersey’s O" by Marilyn J. Tenpenny.

‘Argument!’ helping students understand what essay writing is about. Effective Presentations in Engineering and Science: Guidelines and Video Examples - VISUAL AIDS. Visual aids are an important factor in a successful engineering or science presentation, and as a speaker, you should give careful consideration to your approach to visual aids.

Unfortunately, many presenters rely on the default settings provided by PowerPoint to create slides for their presentations. Typically, this approach results in tiresome slides heavy with bulleted text and perhaps an occasional image. As a presenter, you should consider if this traditional slide design is in fact the best method for communicating scientific information. What research exists that supports the effectiveness of much bulleted text and the occasional image for the communication of scientific information? Since slides are omnipresent in technical presentations, this question deserves some consideration. Here, we strongly advocate for the use of the Assertion-Evidence slide design as a more effective alternative to the traditional bulleted text approach.

So, how should you get started? Style 1. 2. 1. 2. PPT Exercise. Giving a technical presentation (giving a scientific talk) By Michael Ernst January, 2005 Last updated: March 29, 2016 Contents: Introduction (Also see my advice on giving a job talk and on making a technical poster.) There are many good references regarding how to give an effective talk — that is, a technical presentation, whether at a conference, to your research group, or as an invited speaker at another university or research laboratory. Get feedback by giving a practice talk! Think about the presentations you attend (or have attended in the past), especially if they are similar in some way to yours.

The content Before you start preparing a talk, you need to know your goal and know your audience. The goal of a talk you give to your research group is to get feedback to help you improve your research and your understanding of it, so you should plan for a very interactive style, with lots of questions throughout. When you give a talk, ask yourself, “What are the key points that my audience should take away from the talk?” The slides Slide titles. Guides to giving good scientific talks. Gene Therapy -- The time is now: Nick Leschly at TEDxBoston.

After watching this, your brain will not be the same | Lara Boyd | TEDxVancouver. Gresham College. Artificial Intelligence: it will kill us | Jay Tuck | TEDxHamburgSalon. Carrie Nugent: Adventures of an asteroid hunter. Science - Web of Stories. Tabetha Boyajian: The most mysterious star in the universe. Michelle Borkin: Can astronomers help doctors? Jill Bolte Taylor: My stroke of insight | TED Talk. Kate Stone: DJ decks made of ... paper. Amber Case - Cyborg Anthropology and the Future of the Interface. "The Effect Of Mental And Physical Stress On Brain Temperature As Measu" by Dionne Rudison. Abstract The Effect of Mental and Physical Stress on Brain Temperature as Measured Via the Brain Temperature Tunnel Dionne Rudison, David G Silverman, Marc M Abreu , Saeeda Qadri, Swaboda Haberlund, Nyasha George. Core temperature measurement via sublingual, esophageal, and ear routes have been shown to differs significantly intracranial temperature.

In 1998, it was discovered that the termination point of the superior ophthalmic vein under the skin adjacent to the canthus of the eye provided an accurate and non-invasively means to measure brain temperature (14). This location is called the Brain Temperature Tunnel (BTT) . In this study, we investigated the effect of mental and physical stress exercises on intracranial temperature as measured via BTT. Methods: After obtaining IRB approval, non-invasive adhesive thermal sensors were placed at the BTT site near the canthus of the eye of 10 volunteers. Results: ME: The mean increase in BTT (°C) was 0.21ᵒ C and mean increase in HR was 35.5%. Google Ngram Viewer. What is a misplaced modifier. ©t 2000, 1999, 1998, 1998 Margaret L. Benner Misplaced Modifiers A misplaced modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that is improperly separated from the word it modifies / describes. Because of the separation, sentences with this error often sound awkward, ridiculous, or confusing.

Furthermore, they can be downright illogical. Example The example above suggests that a gold man owns a watch. Misplaced modifiers can usually be corrected by moving the modifier to a more sensible place in the sentence, generally next to the word it modifies. Now it is the watch that is gold. There are several kinds of misplaced modifiers: 1. Example 1 Correct the error by placing the adjective next to the noun it modifies. Corrected Example 2 Sentences like these are common in everyday speech and ordinarily cause their listeners no trouble. 2. Just means only John was picked, no one else: Just means that John was picked now: means that John hosted only the program, nothing else: Example 1 (a buyer with leather seats?) Clear, Concise Sentences: Put wordy phrases on a diet. Prepositions. September 2006: Grammar Trap: because of vs. due to.

Writing Exercises for Engineers and Scientists on Grammar, Punctuation, and Usage - Writing Guidelines for Engineering and Science. 10th Anniversary Virtual Issue | Bioscience Horizons: The International Journal of Student Research. Chemistry - Open Educational Resources (OER) - Research Guides at Humboldt State University. Find Open Textbooks. LibriVox. Internet Archive Search: Francis Rolt-Wheeler.