René Descartes Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, and opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza and Descartes were all well versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well. His best known philosophical statement is "Cogito ergo sum" (French: Je pense, donc je suis; I think, therefore I am), found in part IV of Discourse on the Method (1637 – written in French but with inclusion of "Cogito ergo sum") and §7 of part I of Principles of Philosophy (1644 – written in Latin). Early life Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine (now Descartes), Indre-et-Loire, France. In his book, Discourse On The Method, he says "I entirely abandoned the study of letters. Visions According to Adrien Baillet, on the night of 10–11 November 1619 (St. Work Death In 1991 E.
Epiphenomenalism Epiphenomenalism is a mind-body philosophy marked by the belief that basic physical events (sense organs, neural impulses, and muscle contractions) are causal with respect to mental events (thought, consciousness, and cognition). Mental events are viewed as completely dependent on physical functions and, as such, have no independent existence or causal efficacy; it is a mere appearance. Fear seems to make the heart beat faster; though, according to epiphenomenalism, the state of the nervous system causes the heart to beat faster. Because mental events are a kind of overflow that cannot cause anything physical, epiphenomenalism is viewed as a version of monism. Development During the seventeenth century, Rene Descartes argued that animals are subject to mechanical laws of nature. He defended the idea of automatic behavior, or the performance of actions without conscious thought. Huxley defended automatism by testing reflex actions, originally supported by Descartes. Adrian G.
Mindfulness Mindfulness (Pali: sati, Sanskrit: smṛti; also translated as awareness) is a spiritual or psychological faculty (indriya) that, according to the teaching of the Buddha, is of great importance in the path of enlightenment. It is one of the seven factors of enlightenment. "Correct" or "right" mindfulness (Pali: sammā-sati, Sanskrit samyak-smṛti) is the seventh element of the noble eightfold path. The Buddha advocated that one should establish mindfulness (satipaṭṭhāna) in one's day-to-day life, maintaining as much as possible a calm awareness of one's body, feelings, mind, and dharmas. The practice of mindfulness supports analysis resulting in the arising of wisdom (Pali: paññā, Sanskrit: prajñā). A key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative stabilisation must be combined with liberating discernment. The Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta (Sanskrit: Smṛtyupasthāna Sūtra) is an early text dealing with mindfulness. Definitions What is smṛti? Terminology John D. Chinese
Micro Expressions - Research, Theory & Lying | Human Behaviour, Forensic Psychology | Blifaloo Interesting Info -> Lying Index & Body Language -> Micro Expressions Is the show "Lie to Me" for real? I am not a police interrogator, scientist, or other expert... I am however a mother & people watcher. Years ago, when I wrote articles on How to Detect Lies & Eye Movement and Lying -- I knew of the Micro expression theory, but had a difficult time researching the subject well enough to relay it into an article. Recently, I've come across tons of new research, websites, articles, videos, etc. about micro expressions and believe anyone who reads my old articles about lying & body language would benefit from micro expression research and theory. What are Micro Expressions? A micro expression is a momentary involuntary facial expression -- that people unconsciously display when they are hiding an emotion. The main points to remember are that micro expressions are: Brief - Micro-expressions can appear then disappear off the face in a fraction of a second. . and the Duchenne Smile. Dr. Dr. Dr.
Philosophy of Mind: An Overview Brains & Minds Laura Weed takes us on a tour of the mind/brain controversy. In the twentieth century philosophy of mind became one of the central areas of philosophy in the English-speaking world, and so it remains. Questions such as the relationship between mind and brain, the nature of consciousness, and how we perceive the world, have come to be seen as crucial in understanding the world. These days, the predominant position in philosophy of mind aims at equating mental phenomena with operations of the brain, and explaining them all in scientific terms. Sometimes this project is called ‘cognitive science’, and it carries the implicit assumption that cognition occurs in computers as well as in human and animal brains, and can be studied equally well in each of these three forms. Before the mid-twentieth century, for a long time the dominant philosophical view of the mind was that put forward by Ren é Descartes (1596-1650).
Quantum entanglement Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently – instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole. Such phenomena were the subject of a 1935 paper by Albert Einstein, Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, describing what came to be known as the EPR paradox, and several papers by Erwin Schrödinger shortly thereafter. Einstein and others considered such behavior to be impossible, as it violated the local realist view of causality (Einstein referred to it as "spooky action at a distance"), and argued that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics must therefore be incomplete. History However, they did not coin the word entanglement, nor did they generalize the special properties of the state they considered. Concept Meaning of entanglement Apparent paradox The hidden variables theory
Emotional Intelligence In 1990, in my role as a science reporter at The New York Times, I chanced upon an article in a small academic journal by two psychologists, John Mayer, now at the University of New Hampshire, and Yale’s Peter Salovey. Mayer and Salovey offered the first formulation of a concept they called “emotional intelligence.” Those were days when the preeminence of IQ as the standard of excellence in life was unquestioned; a debate raged over whether it was set in our genes or due to experience. But here, suddenly, was a new way of thinking about the ingredients of life success. I was electrified by the notion, which I made the title of this book in 1995. I remember having the thought, just before this book was published ten years ago, that if one day I overheard a conversation in which two strangers used the phrase emotional intelligence and both understood what it meant, I would have succeeded in spreading the concept more widely into the culture.
Meditation Meditation is a practice in which an individual trains the mind or induces a mode of consciousness, either to realize some benefit or as an end in itself. The term meditation refers to a broad variety of practices (much like the term sports) that includes techniques designed to promote relaxation, build internal energy or life force (qi, ki, prana, etc.) and develop compassion, love, patience, generosity and forgiveness. A particularly ambitious form of meditation aims at effortlessly sustained single-pointed concentration single-pointed analysis, meant to enable its practitioner to enjoy an indestructible sense of well-being while engaging in any life activity. Meditation may involve generating an emotional state for the purpose of analyzing that state—such as anger, hatred, etc. Etymology The English meditation is derived from the Latin meditatio, from a verb meditari, meaning "to think, contemplate, devise, ponder". History Man Meditating in a Garden Setting
Autodidacticism Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) or self-education (also self-learning and self-teaching) is education without the guidance of masters (such as teachers and professors) or institutions (such as schools). Generally, an autodidact is an individual who chooses the subject they will study, their studying material, and the studying rhythm and time. An autodidact may or may not have formal education, and their study may be either a complement or an alternative to it. Many notable contributions have been made by autodidacts. Etymology The term has its roots in the Ancient Greek words αὐτός (autós, lit. Terminology Various terms are used to describe self-education. Modern education Autodidacticism is sometimes a complement of modern education. As a complement to education, students would be encouraged to do more independent work. The Industrial Revolution created a new situation for self-directed learners. In history, philosophy, literature, and television Dr.
Reductionism Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homine, 1662. Reductionism strongly reflects a certain perspective on causality. In a reductionist framework, the phenomena that can be explained completely in terms of relations between other more fundamental phenomena, are called epiphenomena. Often there is an implication that the epiphenomenon exerts no causal agency on the fundamental phenomena that explain it. Reductionism does not preclude the existence of what might be called emergent phenomena, but it does imply the ability to understand those phenomena completely in terms of the processes from which they are composed. Religious reductionism generally attempts to explain religion by boiling it down to certain nonreligious causes. Types Richard H. Theoretical reductionism Theoretical reduction is the process by which one theory absorbs another. Methodological reductionism Ontological reductionism In mathematics
Consciousness Representation of consciousness from the seventeenth century At one time consciousness was viewed with skepticism by many scientists, but in recent years it has become a significant topic of research in psychology, neuropsychology and neuroscience. The primary focus is on understanding what it means biologically and psychologically for information to be present in consciousness—that is, on determining the neural and psychological correlates of consciousness. The majority of experimental studies assess consciousness by asking human subjects for a verbal report of their experiences (e.g., "tell me if you notice anything when I do this"). Issues of interest include phenomena such as subliminal perception, blindsight, denial of impairment, and altered states of consciousness produced by drugs and alcohol, or spiritual or meditative techniques. Etymology and early history John Locke, British philosopher active in the 17th century In the dictionary Philosophy of mind
Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) can be defined as the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. There are three models of EI. The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. The trait model as developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides, "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report"  The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI, focusing on EI being an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance, as proposed by Daniel Goleman. It has been argued that EI is either just as important as one's intelligence quotient (IQ). History Definitions Ability model Measurement
Being and Mindfulness The other night at a dinner party, a friend described how she tried to practice mindfulness meditation to keep herself from losing it during an utterly wretched seven-hour layover in an airport while she was exhausted, ill and desperate to get home to her children. “I kept trying to be all ‘Be Here Now,’” she said, “but I just wanted to be anywhere but here.” We all laughed. Then she described how, on another day, she’d managed not to bite off the head of a woman who’d been gratuitously mean to her 8-year-old daughter, but instead had stayed in the moment and had connected and been able to join with the woman in an experience of their common, sadly limited, humanity. Where was the woman I always seek out at school events to laugh with? I felt strangely abandoned. In the past, I’d been only on the other side of the divide. For me, this is a big part of the charm of the whole thing. Mindfulness is supposed to bring people together. “Hang in there. And it was O.K. We all laughed.
Shotoku's Seventeen-Article Constitution - Jushichijo Kenpo - SaruDama Prince Shotoku's Seventeen-Article Constitution [Jushichijo Kenpo] Of all the names within early Japanese history, Prince Shotoku (574-622) shines far more brightly than any of the rest. He was the offspring of his father Emperor Yomei and his mother the Empress Anahobe no Hashihito no Himemiko. His parents were children of Emperor Kimmei by different mothers. Prince Shotoku committed himself (and his court) to acquiring the skill of reading and writing Chinese, and personally delved into Chinese philosophy. One of Prince Shotoku's most important written pieces was the so-called "Seventeen-Article Constitution" completed in 604 AD. The following is Prince Shotoku's Seventeen-Article Constitution: 604 AD, 4th Month, 3rd day. The Prince Imperial Shotoku in person prepared laws for the first time. (1) Harmony should be valued and quarrels should be avoided. (3) Do not fail to obey the commands of your Sovereign. (5) Deal impartially with the legal complaints which are submitted to you.