Latent inhibition Theories The LI effect has received a number of theoretical interpretations. One class of theory holds that inconsequential stimulus pre-exposure results in reduced associability for that stimulus. The loss of associability has been attributed to a variety of mechanisms that reduce attention, which then must be reacquired in order for learning to proceed normally. Alternatively, it has been proposed that LI is a result of retrieval failure rather than acquisition failure. Such a position advocates that, following stimulus pre-exposure, the acquisition of the new association to the old stimulus proceeds normally. However, in the test stage, two associations (the stimulus-no consequence association from the pre-exposure stage and the stimulus-consequence stimulus association of the acquisition stage) are retrieved and compete for expression. Variation LI is affected by many factors, one of the most important of which is context. Physiology Pathology Notes
100 Best RSS Feeds to Follow Science News If you are a busy college student who wants a way to keep up with all the latest science news, but also need to find a balance with all your school work and other commitments, or have an interest in science careers, then following RSS feeds is a great way to customize and streamline the process. Find feeds that touch on everything from space exploration to sustainability to evolution in this awesome list. Sign up for these informative RSS feeds and you will never miss another science news story again. General Science News These news feeds deliver all sorts of science news, ranging from physical science to medical news to archaeology and everywhere in between. Scientific American – News. Physical Sciences Keep up with news from the physical sciences, including chemistry, physics, and Earth sciences. New Scientist – Physics & Math. Biological Sciences From biotechnology to genetics to anthropology, these feeds all bring news from the biological sciences. Space and Astronomy Medicine Technology
Polymath Leonardo da Vinci is regarded as a "Renaissance man" and is one of the most recognizable polymaths. A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the seventeenth century but the related term, polyhistor, is an ancient term with similar meaning. The term applies to the gifted people of the Renaissance who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of knowledge as well as in physical development, social accomplishments, and the arts, in contrast to the vast majority of people of that age who were not well educated. Renaissance ideal Robert A. This Renaissance ideal differed slightly from the "polymath" in that it involved more than just intellectual advancement. Related terms Polymath and polyhistor compared Other uses of 'polymath' See also
Triarchic theory of intelligence Different components of information processing Schematic illustrating one trial of each stimulus pool in the Sternberg task: letter, word, object, spatial, grating. Sternberg associated the workings of the mind with a series of components. These components he labeled the metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components (Sternberg, 1985). The metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. Sternberg’s next set of components, performance components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition components, are used in obtaining new information. Whereas Sternberg explains that the basic information processing components underlying the three parts of his triarchic theory are the same, different contexts and different tasks require different kind of intelligence (Sternberg, 2001). See also
Speed reading History Psychologists and educational specialists working on visual acuity used a tachistoscope to conclude that, with training, an average person could identify minute images flashed on the screen for only one five-hundredth of a second (2 ms). Though the images used were of airplanes, the results had implications for reading. Methods Skimming Another form of skimming is commonly employed by readers on the Internet.  Meta guiding is the visual guiding of the eye using a finger or pointer, such as a pen, in order for the eye to move faster along the length of a passage of text. Commercial speed reading programs Speed reading programs are available through courses, both in person or software based, and manuals. One point of difference between the various speed reading courses is the assertions concerning subvocalization. Speed reading courses and books take a variety of approaches to the concept of reading comprehension. Legentas U.S.
Multipotentiality Multipotentiality is an educational and psychological term referring to the ability of a person, particularly one of intellectual or artistic curiosity, to excel in two or more different fields. It can also refer to an individual whose interests span multiple fields or areas, rather than being strong in just one. Such individuals are called "multipotentialites." On the contrary, those whose interests lie mostly within a single field are called "specialists." While the term multipotentialite can be used interchangeably with polymath or Renaissance Person, the terms are not identical. One need not be an expert in any particular field to be a multipotentialite. Leonardo da Vinci may be the best historical example of an acknowledged genius who struggled with the difficulties associated with multipotentiality. Other notable multipotentialites throughout history are Averroes, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, René Descartes, Sir Isaac Newton, and Aristotle. External links
Intelligence quotient IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. History Early history The English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardised test for rating a person's intelligence. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test in 1905, which focused on verbal abilities. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. General factor (g) The many different kinds of IQ tests use a wide variety of methods. An illustration of Spearman's two-factor intelligence theory. The War Years in the United States L.L. John B.
11 Most Important Philosophical Quotations 1. “The unexamined life is not worth living” – Socrates (470-399 BCE) Socrates’ [wiki] belief that we must reflect upon the life we live was partly inspired by the famous phrase inscribed at the shrine of the oracle at Delphi, “Know thyself.” Socrates felt so passionately about the value of self-examination that he closely examined not only his own beliefs and values but those of others as well. 2. Commonly known as Ockham’s razor, the idea here is that in judging among competing philosophical or scientific theories, all other things being equal, we should prefer the simplest theory. The ultimate irony of Ockham’s razor may be that some have used it to prove God is unnecessary to the explanation of the universe, an idea Ockham the Franciscan priest would reject. 3. Referring to the original state of nature, a hypothetical past before civilization, Hobbes [wiki] saw no reason to be nostalgic. 4. On the heels of believing in himself, Descartes asked, What am I? 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.
Emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence (EI) can be defined as the ability to monitor one's own and other people's emotions, to discriminate between different emotions and label them appropriately, and to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. There are three models of EI. The ability model, developed by Peter Salovey and John Mayer, focuses on the individual's ability to process emotional information and use it to navigate the social environment. The trait model as developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides, "encompasses behavioral dispositions and self perceived abilities and is measured through self report"  The final model, the mixed model is a combination of both ability and trait EI, focusing on EI being an array of skills and characteristics that drive leadership performance, as proposed by Daniel Goleman. It has been argued that EI is either just as important as one's intelligence quotient (IQ). History Definitions Ability model Measurement
g factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor. The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests. The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. Mental tests may be designed to measure different aspects of cognition.
Psychology Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. Etymology History Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanistic
Gifted education Gifted education (also known as Gifted and Talented Education (GATE), Talented and Gifted (TAG), or G/T) is a broad term for special practices, procedures, and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. There is no standard global definition of what a gifted student is. In 2011, the National Association for Gifted Children published a position paper that defined what a gifted student is. History Classical era to Renaissance Gifted and talented education dates back thousands of years. Sir Francis Galton One of the earliest Western studies of human abilities was conducted by Sir Francis Galton, who between 1888 and 1894 developed and compiled measurements of over 7,500 individuals to gauge their natural intellectual abilities. Lewis Terman Leta Hollingworth The Cold War Marland Report The report's definition continues to be the basis of the definition of giftedness in most districts and states.
Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument. In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group". The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom". The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. Areas of inquiry Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics. Some of the major areas of study are considered individually below. Epistemology Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Logic