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Voyager - The Interstellar Mission

Voyager - The Interstellar Mission
Pioneers 10 and 11, which preceded Voyager, both carried small metal plaques identifying their time and place of origin for the benefit of any other spacefarers that might find them in the distant future. With this example before them, NASA placed a more ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2-a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials. The Voyager message is carried by a phonograph record-a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University, et. al. The definitive work about the Voyager record is "Murmurs of Earth" by Executive Director, Carl Sagan, Technical Director, Frank Drake, Creative Director, Ann Druyan, Producer, Timothy Ferris, Designer, Jon Lomberg, and Greetings Organizer, Linda Salzman. Related:  Universe & Multiverse

10 Strange Things About The Universe Space The universe can be a very strange place. While groundbreaking ideas such as quantum theory, relativity and even the Earth going around the Sun might be commonly accepted now, science still continues to show that the universe contains things you might find it difficult to believe, and even more difficult to get your head around. Theoretically, the lowest temperature that can be achieved is absolute zero, exactly ?273.15°C, where the motion of all particles stops completely. One of the properties of a negative-energy vacuum is that light actually travels faster in it than it does in a normal vacuum, something that may one day allow people to travel faster than the speed of light in a kind of negative-energy vacuum bubble. One prediction of Einstein’s theory of general relativity is that when a large object moves, it drags the space-time around it, causing nearby objects to be pulled along as well. Relativity of Simultaneity This is similar to arranging tiles evenly on a floor.

Spacecraft Overview The identical Voyager spacecraft are three-axis stabilized systems that use celestial or gyro referenced attitude control to maintain pointing of the high-gain antennas toward Earth. The prime mission science payload consisted of 10 instruments (11 investigations including radio science). Only five investigator teams are still supported, though data are collected for two additional instruments. With the exception of the Voyager 1 PLS instrument, all of the above are working well and are capable of continuing operations in the expected environment. In addition, data are collected from the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument and Voyager 1's Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS). The command computer subsystem (CCS) provides sequencing and control functions The CCS contains fixed routines such as command decoding and fault detection and corrective routines, antenna pointing information, and spacecraft sequencing information.

EAAE Eratosthenes Project - Eratosthenes' Experiment Eratosthenes was born in the country we now call Lybia, but in those days was called Cyrene. 19th century reconstruction of Eratosthenes' map of the known world, c.194 BC. Source: Wikipedia Eratosthenes studied in Alexandria and claimed to have also studied for some years in Athens. As chief librarian he read many documents and found out that at the Ancient Egyptian city of Swenet (known in Greek as Syene, and in the modern day as Aswan) that is located near the tropic of Cancer on June there is a well where on certain day of the year the sunlight goes down to the bottom of the well. With this information he measured the circumference of the Earth without leaving Egypt by assuming that Earth was a sphere and that the Sun rays are parallel when they arrive to Earth. Eratosthenes assumed that Earth is a sphere and that the solar rays are parallel when they reach Earth.

Deep Time - Interactive Infographic Golden Record Cover "In the upper left-hand corner is an easily recognized drawing of the phonograph record and the stylus carried with it. The stylus is in the correct position to play the record from the beginning. Written around it in binary arithmetic is the correct time of one rotation of the record, 3.6 seconds, expressed in time units of 0,70 billionths of a second, the time period associated with a fundamental transition of the hydrogen atom. "The information in the upper right-hand portion of the cover is designed to show how pictures are to be constructed from the recorded signals. "The drawing in the lower left-hand corner of the cover is the pulsar map previously sent as part of the plaques on Pioneers 10 and 11. "Electroplated onto the record's cover is an ultra-pure source of uranium-238 with a radioactivity of about 0.00026 microcuries.

The Miller/Urey Experiment By the 1950s, scientists were in hot pursuit of the origin of life. Around the world, the scientific community was examining what kind of environment would be needed to allow life to begin. In 1953, Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey, working at the University of Chicago, conducted an experiment which would change the approach of scientific investigation into the origin of life. Miller took molecules which were believed to represent the major components of the early Earth's atmosphere and put them into a closed system The gases they used were methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2), and water (H2O). In 1961, Juan Oro found that amino acids could be made from hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia in an aqueous solution. These discoveries created a stir within the science community. There has been a recent wave of skepticism concerning Miller's experiment because it is now believed that the early earth's atmosphere did not contain predominantly reductant molecules.

La relativité - 1,2,3,4, dimensions La théorie de la Relativité Concepts fondamentaux Corpus théorique (I) Avant de poursuivre cette initiation à la relativité, il est indispensable d'introduire quelques rudiments de mathématiques afin de fourbir votre esprit avec la meilleure arme intellectuelle qui soit pour comprendre la suite du récit. Il faut en effet à présent définir quelques notions fondamentales, quitte à devoir faire usage d’un peu de symbolique mathématique. Mais n'ayez pas d'inquiétudes, le sujet retiendra votre attention. J’ai tout imaginé pour vous éviter cette partie “dure” du sujet , en tous cas sa partie nettement moins littéraire, c’est-à-dire les définitions du cadre relativiste; mais à mesure que je relisais ce passage tout en le rédigeant, je me suis finalement rendu compte que s’il y avait une chose sur laquelle il fallait bien insister quand on apprend une nouvelle matière, c’était par définition les notions de bases. 1,2, 3, 4 dimensions A lire : Flatland, E.Abbott, 1884 (PDF) Vecteur, champ et tenseur

The sound of galactic barking dogs Voyager Set to Enter Interstellar Space April 28, 2011 More than 30 years after they left Earth, NASA's twin Voyager probes are now at the edge of the solar system. Not only that, they're still working. And with each passing day they are beaming back a message that, to scientists, is both unsettling and thrilling. The message is, "Expect the unexpected." "It's uncanny," says Ed Stone of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Voyager Project Scientist since 1972. The adventure began in the late 1970s when the probes took advantage of a rare alignment of outer planets for an unprecedented Grand Tour. When pressed to name the top discoveries from those encounters, Stone pauses, not for lack of material, but rather an embarrassment of riches. "Each of these discoveries changed the way we thought of other worlds," says Stone. In 1980, Voyager 1 used the gravity of Saturn to fling itself slingshot-style out of the plane of the solar system.

Dionysus 2 - Greek Mythology Link Here is a god who gives pleasure to mankind: he discovered honey, and the vine and its cultivation, though some say that it was Aristaeus who discovered honey, and that he competed with his honey against the wine of Dionysus 2, Zeus giving the first prize to wine. Dionysus 2 was attended by SATYRS and MAENADS, whom he formed into an army, making a campaign all over the inhabited world as far as India. During his wars, it is told, he arrayed himself in suitable arms and in the skin of panthers, but in times of peace during his festive gatherings, he wore bright-coloured, luxurious, and effeminate garments. It is said that Dionysus 2 loves the panther because it is the most excitable of animals, and leaps like a Maenad. He instructed all men in the knowledge of his rites, and some affirm that King Oeneus 2 of Calydon was the first to receive a vine-plant from Dionysus 2. Semele Childhood Hera persecutes him Lycurgus 1 Pentheus 1 Argos Pirates Ariadne Ariadne's final fate Other loves

Nothingness: Why nothing matters Our pursuit of naught provides profound insights into the nature of reality Read more: "The nature of nothingness" SHAKESPEARE had it right, even in ways he couldn't have imagined. For centuries, scientists have indeed been making much ado about nothing - and with good reason. The modern story of nothing began with a thought experiment dreamed up by Isaac Newton. With that answer, Newton made something out of nothing. The discovery of quantum mechanics took the story of nothing further still. This year's Nobel prize in physics recognises the power of nothing on cosmic scales. The Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, the world's most powerful particle accelerator, is also in the business of probing nothing. Since the time of Newton, we have thus gradually realised that nature has masked the identity of nothing with a Shakespearian deftness. Profile New Scientist Not just a website! More From New Scientist Stuff: A few of your favourite things (New Scientist) More from the web (YouTube)

3D Bow shock other side Our Solar System, from the Outside This graphic, based on data from NASA's Voyager spacecraft, shows a model of what our solar system looks like to an observer outside in interstellar space, watching our solar system fly towards the observer. The colors map the intensity of the magnetic field around our solar system, with red indicating the highest intensity field and blue indicating the lowest intensity field. The thick red line shows the recent trajectory of Voyager 1. The motion of our solar system through the interstellar medium, or the space between stars, warps the magnetic bubble around our solar system. The Voyagers were built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., which continues to operate both spacecraft. For more information about the Voyager spacecraft, visit and .

Viriathus Viriathus Even before they were an ever-expanding empire hell-bent on world domination and the unconditional submission of anything they even remotely perceived as an enemy, the Romans were still pretty colossal jackasses. While this statement can confidently be broadly applied to almost every single dealing between the time that Romulus first suckled a she-wolf and when Mehmet the Conqueror's Turkish forces overran the last bastion of Constantinople nearly two millennia later, the Iberian peninsula is as good a place as any to focus on the good people of Latium and their crush-tastic propensity for violently ruining the lives of everyone in their general vicinity. The whole mess started with a charming little African city called Carthage, and the fact that it's mere existence was enough to send the Roman senate into hysterical bouts of implacable, over-the-top Lou Ferrigno-style blood rages. It doesn't take a political nuclear scientist to figure out what happened next. Links: Wikipedia