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Voyager - The Interstellar Mission

Voyager - The Interstellar Mission
Pioneers 10 and 11, which preceded Voyager, both carried small metal plaques identifying their time and place of origin for the benefit of any other spacefarers that might find them in the distant future. With this example before them, NASA placed a more ambitious message aboard Voyager 1 and 2-a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials. The Voyager message is carried by a phonograph record-a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth. The contents of the record were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University, et. al. The definitive work about the Voyager record is "Murmurs of Earth" by Executive Director, Carl Sagan, Technical Director, Frank Drake, Creative Director, Ann Druyan, Producer, Timothy Ferris, Designer, Jon Lomberg, and Greetings Organizer, Linda Salzman. Related:  Universe & Multiverse

10 Strange Things About The Universe Space The universe can be a very strange place. While groundbreaking ideas such as quantum theory, relativity and even the Earth going around the Sun might be commonly accepted now, science still continues to show that the universe contains things you might find it difficult to believe, and even more difficult to get your head around. Theoretically, the lowest temperature that can be achieved is absolute zero, exactly ?273.15°C, where the motion of all particles stops completely. One of the properties of a negative-energy vacuum is that light actually travels faster in it than it does in a normal vacuum, something that may one day allow people to travel faster than the speed of light in a kind of negative-energy vacuum bubble. One prediction of Einstein’s theory of general relativity is that when a large object moves, it drags the space-time around it, causing nearby objects to be pulled along as well. Relativity of Simultaneity This is similar to arranging tiles evenly on a floor.

Spacecraft Overview The identical Voyager spacecraft are three-axis stabilized systems that use celestial or gyro referenced attitude control to maintain pointing of the high-gain antennas toward Earth. The prime mission science payload consisted of 10 instruments (11 investigations including radio science). Only five investigator teams are still supported, though data are collected for two additional instruments. With the exception of the Voyager 1 PLS instrument, all of the above are working well and are capable of continuing operations in the expected environment. In addition, data are collected from the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument and Voyager 1's Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS). The command computer subsystem (CCS) provides sequencing and control functions The CCS contains fixed routines such as command decoding and fault detection and corrective routines, antenna pointing information, and spacecraft sequencing information.

Nasa Shares Rare View Of Saturn's Rings Nasa's Cassini spacecraft, which has been in orbit around Saturn for more than eight years, has delivered a rare backlit view of the planet and its rings. The image was taken during Cassini's 174th orbit around the gas giant when it was deliberately positioned within Saturn's shadow. The US space agency said on its website: "It was the perfect location from which to look in the direction of the sun and take a backlit view of the rings and the dark side of the planet. "Looking back towards the sun is a geometry referred to by planetary scientists as "high solar phase"; near the centre of your target's shadow is the highest phase possible. "This is a very scientifically advantageous and coveted viewing position, as it can reveal details about both the rings and atmosphere that cannot be seen in lower solar phase." The mosaic picture is composed of 60 images taken in violet, visible and near-infrared colours. "They unveil a rare splendour seldom seen anywhere else in our solar system."

Arecibo message This is the message with color added to highlight its separate parts. The actual binary transmission carried no color information. The Arecibo message was broadcast into space a single time via frequency modulated radio waves at a ceremony to mark the remodeling of the Arecibo radio telescope in Puerto Rico on 16 November 1974.[1] It was aimed at the globular star cluster M13 some 25,000 light years away because M13 was a large and close collection of stars that was available in the sky at the time and place of the ceremony.[2] The message consisted of 1,679 binary digits, approximately 210 bytes, transmitted at a frequency of 2,380 MHz and modulated by shifting the frequency by 10 Hz, with a power of 1,000 kW. The "ones" and "zeros" were transmitted by frequency shifting at the rate of 10 bits per second. The total broadcast was less than three minutes.[1][3] Dr. Explanation[edit] Numbers[edit] DNA elements[edit] The numbers 1, 6, 7, 8 and 15 appear. Nucleotides[edit] Double helix[edit]

Deep Time - Interactive Infographic Golden Record Cover "In the upper left-hand corner is an easily recognized drawing of the phonograph record and the stylus carried with it. The stylus is in the correct position to play the record from the beginning. Written around it in binary arithmetic is the correct time of one rotation of the record, 3.6 seconds, expressed in time units of 0,70 billionths of a second, the time period associated with a fundamental transition of the hydrogen atom. "The information in the upper right-hand portion of the cover is designed to show how pictures are to be constructed from the recorded signals. "The drawing in the lower left-hand corner of the cover is the pulsar map previously sent as part of the plaques on Pioneers 10 and 11. "Electroplated onto the record's cover is an ultra-pure source of uranium-238 with a radioactivity of about 0.00026 microcuries.

What is a white hole? I have read a lot about Black holes and have gained wisdom of the subject. My question- are there such things as white holes- and if so- what do they do? Before I answer this question I would like to point you to Kate Becker's discussion of why it is so hard to understand the expansion of the universe. The exact same argument applies here. White holes are not something that it is possible to understand using physical intuition. White holes pop up in general relativity (which also explains the expansion of the universe) and that theory as a whole is not easy to understand physically. Hopefully that will give you some idea of why it is so hard to explain some of these concepts without resorting to mathematics. Anyway I'll have a go..... What is a white hole? The short answer is that a white hole is something which probably cannot exist in the real universe. How can you have a black hole with no mass? Mathematically this is actually the simplest kind of black hole. Where can I read more?

La relativité - 1,2,3,4, dimensions La théorie de la Relativité Concepts fondamentaux Corpus théorique (I) Avant de poursuivre cette initiation à la relativité, il est indispensable d'introduire quelques rudiments de mathématiques afin de fourbir votre esprit avec la meilleure arme intellectuelle qui soit pour comprendre la suite du récit. Il faut en effet à présent définir quelques notions fondamentales, quitte à devoir faire usage d’un peu de symbolique mathématique. Mais n'ayez pas d'inquiétudes, le sujet retiendra votre attention. J’ai tout imaginé pour vous éviter cette partie “dure” du sujet , en tous cas sa partie nettement moins littéraire, c’est-à-dire les définitions du cadre relativiste; mais à mesure que je relisais ce passage tout en le rédigeant, je me suis finalement rendu compte que s’il y avait une chose sur laquelle il fallait bien insister quand on apprend une nouvelle matière, c’était par définition les notions de bases. 1,2, 3, 4 dimensions A lire : Flatland, E.Abbott, 1884 (PDF) Vecteur, champ et tenseur

The sound of galactic barking dogs Voyager Set to Enter Interstellar Space April 28, 2011 More than 30 years after they left Earth, NASA's twin Voyager probes are now at the edge of the solar system. Not only that, they're still working. And with each passing day they are beaming back a message that, to scientists, is both unsettling and thrilling. The message is, "Expect the unexpected." "It's uncanny," says Ed Stone of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, Voyager Project Scientist since 1972. The adventure began in the late 1970s when the probes took advantage of a rare alignment of outer planets for an unprecedented Grand Tour. When pressed to name the top discoveries from those encounters, Stone pauses, not for lack of material, but rather an embarrassment of riches. "Each of these discoveries changed the way we thought of other worlds," says Stone. In 1980, Voyager 1 used the gravity of Saturn to fling itself slingshot-style out of the plane of the solar system.

White hole In general relativity, a white hole is a hypothetical region of spacetime which cannot be entered from the outside, although matter and light can escape from it. In this sense, it is the reverse of a black hole, which can only be entered from the outside, but from which nothing, including light, can escape. White holes appear in the theory of eternal black holes. In addition to a black hole region in the future, such a solution of the Einstein field equations has a white hole region in its past.[1] However, this region does not exist for black holes that have formed through gravitational collapse, nor are there any known physical processes through which a white hole could be formed. Like black holes, white holes have properties like mass, charge, and angular momentum. In quantum mechanics, the black hole emits Hawking radiation and so can come to thermal equilibrium with a gas of radiation. Origin[edit] 1980s – present speculations[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Nothingness: Why nothing matters Our pursuit of naught provides profound insights into the nature of reality Read more: "The nature of nothingness" SHAKESPEARE had it right, even in ways he couldn't have imagined. For centuries, scientists have indeed been making much ado about nothing - and with good reason. The modern story of nothing began with a thought experiment dreamed up by Isaac Newton. With that answer, Newton made something out of nothing. The discovery of quantum mechanics took the story of nothing further still. This year's Nobel prize in physics recognises the power of nothing on cosmic scales. The Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, the world's most powerful particle accelerator, is also in the business of probing nothing. Since the time of Newton, we have thus gradually realised that nature has masked the identity of nothing with a Shakespearian deftness. Profile New Scientist Not just a website! More From New Scientist Stuff: A few of your favourite things (New Scientist) More from the web (YouTube)

3D Bow shock other side Our Solar System, from the Outside This graphic, based on data from NASA's Voyager spacecraft, shows a model of what our solar system looks like to an observer outside in interstellar space, watching our solar system fly towards the observer. The colors map the intensity of the magnetic field around our solar system, with red indicating the highest intensity field and blue indicating the lowest intensity field. The thick red line shows the recent trajectory of Voyager 1. The motion of our solar system through the interstellar medium, or the space between stars, warps the magnetic bubble around our solar system. The Voyagers were built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., which continues to operate both spacecraft. For more information about the Voyager spacecraft, visit and .

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