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Business
The etymology of "business" stems from the idea of being busy, and implies socially valuable and rewarding work. A business can mean a particular organization or a more generalized usage refers to an entire market sector, i.e. "the music business". Basic forms of business ownership[edit] Forms of business ownership vary by jurisdiction, but several common forms exist: Classifications[edit] Management[edit] The efficient and effective operation of a business, and study of this subject, is called management. Owners may administer their businesses themselves, or employ of managers to do this for them. Restructuring state enterprises[edit] In recent decades, various states modeled some of their assets and enterprises after business enterprises. Business process management (BPM) is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. Organization and government regulation[edit] Commercial law[edit] Capital[edit] Related:  Economicswarnerjohn661

Socioeconomics Socioeconomics (also known as socio-economics or social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes. In general it analyzes how societies progress, stagnate, or regress because of their local or regional economy, or the global economy. Overview[edit] Socioeconomics is sometimes used as an umbrella term with different usages. For example, the Governor of Washington, Paul Doran, announced the effects of socioeconomics. In many cases, socioeconomists focus on the social impact of some sort of economic change. The goal of socioeconomic study is generally to bring about socioeconomic development, usually by improvements in metrics such as GDP, life expectancy, literacy, levels of employment, etc. See also[edit] Notes[edit] Jump up ^ John Eatwell, Murray Milgate, and Peter Newman, [1987] 1989. References[edit] Gustav Cassel, [1931] 1932. External links[edit]

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Corporation In American English the word corporation is widely used to describe large business corporations.[4] In British English and in the commonwealth countries, the term company is more widely used to describe the same sort of entity while the word corporation encompasses all incorporated entities. In American English, the word company can include entities such as partnerships that would not be referred to as companies in British English as they are not a separate legal entity. Despite not being human beings, corporations, as far as the law is concerned, are legal persons, and have many of the same rights and responsibilities as natural people do. Corporations can exercise human rights against real individuals and the state,[5][6] and they can themselves be responsible for human rights violations.[7] Corporations can be "dissolved" either by statutory operation, order of court, or voluntary action on the part of shareholders. History[edit] Mercantilism[edit] Modern company law[edit]

Soft Drink Industry Structure The illusion of diversity: visualizing ownership in the soft drink industryPhil Howard,1 Chris Duvall2 and Kirk Goldsberry3August, 2010 BackgroundThree firms control 89% of US soft drink sales [1]. This dominance is obscured from us by the appearance of numerous choices on retailer shelves. Steve Hannaford refers to this as "pseudovariety," or the illusion of diversity, concealing a lack of real choice [2]. Click for zoom.it (scroll in and out) version or extra large versionPDF version of Soft Drink Industry Structure, 2008 ResultsWe recorded 993 varieties of soft drinks. Less dominant companies tend to fill two different niches: 1) they sell inexpensive brands, often available only at specific retail chains, or 2) they compete in newer categories such as energy drinks, teas and flavored waters, rather than the more established soda category. The most successful competitors in these new categories may eventually be bought out. Coca-Cola’s 25 brands and 133 varieties Dr. Literature Cited 1.

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Corporation Basics Most people have heard that forming a corporation provides "limited liability" -- that is, it limits your personal liability for business debts. What you may not know is that there's more to creating and running a corporation than filing a few papers. You'll need to keep good records to handle the more complicated corporate tax return and, in order to retain your limited liability, you must follow corporate formalities involving decision making and record keeping. In short, you've got to be organized. Limited Personal Liability One of the main advantages of incorporating is that the owners' personal assets are protected from creditors of the corporation. Exceptions to Limited Liability There are some circumstances in which limited liability will not protect an owner's personal assets. This last exception is the most important. Liability Insurance Incorporating should never take the place of good business insurance. Paying Corporate Income Tax Forming a Corporation Retaining Corporate Status

Remix culture Remix culture, sometimes read-write culture, is a society that allows and encourages derivative works by combining or editing existing materials to produce a new creative work or product.[2][3] A remix culture would be, by default, permissive of efforts to improve upon, change, integrate, or otherwise remix the work of copyright holders. While a common practice of artists of all domains throughout human history,[4] the growth of exclusive copyright restrictions in the last several decades limits this practice more and more by the legal chilling effect.[5] As reaction Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig, who considers remixing a desirable concept for human creativity, works since the early 2000s[6][7] on a transfer of the remixing concept into the digital age. Lessig founded the Creative Commons in 2001 which released Licenses as tools to enable remix culture again, as remixing is legally prevented by the default exclusive copyright regime applied currently on intellectual property.

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Partnership Basics A partnership is a business with more than one owner that has not filed papers with the state to become a corporation or LLC (limited liability company). There are two basic types of partnerships -- general partnerships and limited partnerships. The general partnership is the simplest and least expensive co-owned business structure to create and maintain. By definition, a partnership is a business with more than one owner that has not filed papers with the state to become a corporation or LLC (limited liability company). The partnership is the simplest and least expensive co-owned business structure to create and maintain. Personal Liability for All Owners First, partners are personally liable for all business debts and obligations, including court judgments. There are a few exceptions to this personal liability. Joint Authority In addition, any individual partner can usually bind the whole business to a contract or other business deal. Joint Liability Partnership Taxes

Open-source economics First applied to the open-source software industry,[1] this economic model may be applied to a wide range of enterprises. Some characteristics of open-source economics may include: work or investment is carried out without express expectation of return; products or services are produced through collaboration between users and developers; there is no direct individual ownership of the enterprise itself. As of recently there were no known commercial organizations outside of software that employ open-source economics as a structural base.[2] Today there are organizations that provide services and products, or at least instructions for building such services or products, that use an open-source economic model.[3][4] The structure of open source is based on user participation. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Yochai Benkler on the new open-source economics

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